A compendious review on clay modification techniques for wastewater remediation

Abstract views: 433 / PDF downloads: 55


  • POOJA PATANJALI Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021, India
  • INDU CHOPRA Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021, India
  • NEERAJ PATANJALI Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021, India
  • RAJEEV SINGH Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021, India



Clay modification, Dyes, Wastewater, Surfactant, Silane


Presence of significant quantities of toxic dyes has led to contamination of fresh water resources. The limited availability of fresh water has escalated the pressure on maintaining sustainable agricultural production to ensure food security. So , there is a need to recycle the wastewater and to explore the possibility to reuse it for irrigation purpose. Amongst different techniques, adsorption has been found to be the best way for the remediation of colored effluents. The concept of recycling and reuse of wastewater has propelled the exploration of potential inexpensive adsorbents. Clays are cheap, non-toxic abundantly available natural materials. Over the recent years, researchers have focused on clays modification to enhance their adsorption efficiency for the remediation of contaminants such as dyes from wastewater. Therefore, the present article is written with an aim to systematically summarize the recent advancements in clay modification and their potential as effective adsorbing agents for the removal of various dyes from contaminated wastewaters. A detailed description of various clay modification techniques such as treatment with surfactant, acid, heat, plasma, polymer, silane, metal oxide has been presented here. The effect of various physicochemical process parameters such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature on the performance of modified clays has also been presented. Based upon the final outcome of literature review, it can be concluded that modified clays are much better adsorbing agents in comparison to the natural clays. Hence, modified clays represent an economically viable and sustainable option for the purification of wastewaters containing dyes and it can be utilized for irrigating different crops at the places where fresh water resources have either depleted or limited.


Download data is not yet available.


Aggarwal V, Li H, Boyd S A and Teppen B J. 2006. Enhanced sorption of trichloroethene by smectite clay exchanged with Cs+. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 894–899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/es0500411

Amonette J E, Zelazny L W, Číčel B and Komadel P. 1994. Structural formulae of layer silicates. (In) Quantitative Methods in Soil Mineralogy, pp 114-136. Soil Science Society of America.

Anirudhan T S and Ramachandran M. 2015. Adsorptive removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by surfactant modified bentonite clay (organoclay): Kinetic and competitive adsorption isotherm. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 95: 215–225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2015.03.003

Argun M E, Dursun S, Karatas M and Gürü M. 2008. Activation of pine cone using Fenton oxidation for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. Bioresource Technology 99(18): 8691–8698. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.04.014

Auta M and Hameed B H. 2013. Acid modified local clay beads as effective low-cost adsorbent for dynamic adsorption of methylene blue. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 19(4): 1153–1161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.12.012

Baloyi J, Ntho T and Moma J. 2018. Synthesis and application of pillared clay heterogeneous catalysts for wastewater treatment: a review. RSC Advances 8: 5197–5211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RA12924F

Bartelt-Hunt S L, Burns S E and Smith J A. 2003. Nonionic organic solute sorption onto two organobentonites as a function of organic-carbon content. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 266: 251–258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00617-9

Bhattacharyya K G, Sen Gupta S and Sarma G K. 2014. Interactions of the dye, Rhodamine B with kaolinite and montmorillonite in water. Applied Clay Science 99: 7–17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.07.012

Bhuiyan M A R, Mizanur Rahman M, Shaid A, Bashar M M and Khan M A. 2016. Scope of reusing and recycling the textile wastewater after treatment with gamma radiation. Journal of Cleaner Production 112: 3063–3071. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.029

Biglari H, Rodríguezícouto S, Khaniabadi Y O, Nourmoradi H, Khoshgoftar M, Amrane A, Vosoughi M, Esmaeili S, Heydari R, Mohammadi M J and Rashidi R. 2018. Cationic surfactant-modified clay as an adsorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering 20170064: 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijcre-2017-0064

Biswas T D and Mukherjee S K. 1994. Textbook of Soil Science. Tata McGraw-Hill.

Boukhemkhem A and Rida K. 2017. Improvement adsorption capacity of methylene blue onto modified Tamazert kaolin. Adsorption Science and Technology 35: 753–773. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0263617416684835

Bouras O, Chami T, Houari M, Khalaf H, Bollinger J C and Baudu M. 2002. Removal of sulfacid brilliant pink from an aqueous stream by adsorption onto surfactant-modified ti-pillared montmorillonite. Environmental Technology 23(4): 405–411. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332508618397

Brigatti M F, Galan E and Theng B K G. 2006. Chapter 2-Structures and mineralogy of clay minerals. (In) Developments in Clay Science, Vol 1, pp 19-86. Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-4352(05)01002-0

Bulut Y and Aydin H. 2006. A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells. Desalination 194: 259–267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2005.10.032

Çakmak M, Taşar Ş, Selen V, Özer D and Özer A. 2017. Removal of astrazon golden yellow 7GL from colored wastewater using chemically modified clay. Journal of Central South University 24: 743–753. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-017-3476-y

Čapková P, Matoušek J, Rejnek J, Bendlová N, Pavlík J, Kormunda M, Šplíchalová L and Pilařová V. 2016. Effect of plasma treatment on structure and surface properties of montmorillonite. Applied Clay Science 129: 15–19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.04.016

Carrado K A and Komadel P. 2009. Acid activation of bentonites and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Elements 5(2): 111–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/gselements.5.2.111

Chen H, Zhao J, Zhong A and Jin Y. 2011. Removal capacity and adsorption mechanism of heat-treated palygorskite clay for methylene blue. Chemical Engineering Journal 174: 143–150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.08.062

Chen T, Liu H, Li J, Chen D, Chang D, Kong D and Frost R L. 2011a. Effect of thermal treatment on adsorption–desorption of ammonia and sulfur dioxide on palygorskite: Change of surface acid–alkali properties. Chemical Engineering Journal 166(3): 1017–1021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.11.094

Choi H J. 2017. Application of surface modified sericite to remove anionic dye from an aqueous solution. Environmental Engineering Research 22: 312–319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2016.156

Chopra I and Singh S B. 2019. Pearl Millet Seed Husk as an Effective Low-Cost Adsorbent for Methylene Blue: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies. Proceedings of 1st National Agrochemicals Congress Country’s Status on Various Fronts of Agrochemicals, p 120, November 13 – 16, 2019, Delhi.

Chopra I, Singh, P K and Singh S B. 2019. Utilization of pearlmillet stem, an agricultural waste as potential adsorbent for removal of cationic dye from aqueous solutions. Proceedings of XIV Agricultural Science Congress, 20-23 February, 2019, Delhi.

Cottet L, Almeida C A P, Naidek N, Viante M F, Lopes M C and Debacher N A. 2014. Adsorption characteristics of montmorillonite clay modified with iron oxide with respect to methylene blue in aqueous media. Applied Clay Science 95: 25–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.03.023

de Queiroga L N F, Soares P K, Fonseca M G and De Oliveira F J V E. 2016. Experimental design investigation for vermiculite modification: Intercalation reaction and application for dye removal. Applied Clay Science 126: 113–121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.02.031

Djowe A T, Laminsi S, Njopwouo D, Acayanka E and Gaigneaux E M. 2013. Surface modification of smectite clay induced by non-thermal gliding arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 33: 707–723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-013-9454-8

España V A A, Sarkar B, Biswas B, Rusmin R and Naidu R. 2019. Environmental applications of thermally modified and acid activated clay minerals: Current status of the art. Environmental Technology & Innovation 13: 383-397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2016.11.005

Fan H, Zhou L, Jiang X, Huang Q and Lang W. 2014. Adsorption of Cu2+ and methylene blue on dodecyl sulfobetaine surfactant-modified montmorillonite. Applied Clay Science 95:150–158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.04.001

Fatyeyeva K, Bigarré J, Blondel B, Galiano H, Gaud D, Lecardeur M and Poncin-Epaillard F. 2011. Grafting of p-styrene sulfonate and 1,3-propane sultone onto Laponite for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application. Journal of Membrane Science 366:33–42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2010.09.023

Ferreira A M, Coutinho J A P, Fernandes A M and Freire M G. 2014. Complete removal of textile dyes from aqueous media using ionic-liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems. Separation and Purification Technology 128:58–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.02.036

Fetter G and Bosch P. 2010. Microwave effect on clay pillaring. (In) Pillared Clays and Related Catalyst. Springer New York, pp 1–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6670-4_1

Galeano L, Vicente M Á and Gil A. 2014. Catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous streams by Mixed Al / M-Pillared Clays ( M = Fe , Cu , Mn ). Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering 56 (3): 239-287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01614940.2014.904182

Gan F, Zhou J, Wang H, Du C and Chen X. 2009. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by thermally treated natural palygorskite. Water Research 43:2907–2915. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.03.051

Gil A, Assis F C C, Albeniz S and Korili S A. 2011. Removal of dyes from wastewaters by adsorption on pillared clays. Chemical Engineering Journal 168: 1032–1040. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.01.078

Gil A, Gandía L M and Vicente M A. 2000. Recent advances in the synthesis and catalytic applications of pillared clays. Catalysis Reviews 42:145–212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1081/CR-100100261

Gil A, Korili S A and Vicente M A. 2008. Recent advances in the control and characterization of the porous structure of pillared clay catalysts. Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering 50(2): 153-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01614940802019383

Guruvenket S, Rao G M, Komath M and Raichur A M. 2004. Plasma surface modification of polystyrene and polyethylene. Applied surface Science 236: 278–284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.04.033

Hai Y, Li X, Wu H, Zhao S, Deligeer W and Asuha S. 2015. Modification of acid-activated kaolinite with TiO2 and its use for the removal of azo dyes. Applied Clay Science 114: 558–567. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2015.07.010

Huang Z, Li Y, Chen W, Shi J, Zhang N, Wang X, Li Z, Gao L and Zhang Y. 2017. Modified bentonite adsorption of organic pollutants of dye wastewater. Materials Chemistry and Physics 202: 266–276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2017.09.028

Hundal L, Thompson M, Laird D and Carmo A. 2001. Sorption of phenantrene by reference smectites. Environmental Science & Technology35: 3456–3461. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/es001982a

Hussain S, Ullah Z, Gul S, Khattak R, Kazmi N, Rehman F, Khan S, Ahmad K, Imad M and Khan A. 2016. Adsorption characteristics of magnesium-modified bentonite clay with respect to acid blue 129 in aqueous media. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies25: 1947–1953. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/62272

Anonymous. 2002. Fundamentals of Soil Science. Indian Society of Soil Science.

Jourvand M, Khorramabadi G S, Omidi-Khaniabadi Y, Godini H and Nourmoradi H. 2015. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using modified clay. Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences 2: 32–41.

Kango S, Kalia S, Celli A, Njuguna J, Habibi Y and Kumar R. 2013. Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles for development of organic-inorganic nanocomposites - A review. Progress in Polymer Science 38:1232–1261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2013.02.003

Kausar A, Iqbal M, Javed A, Aftab K, Nazli Z H and Bhatti H N. 2018. Dyes adsorption using clay and modified clay: A review. Journal of Molecular Liquids 256: 395–407 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.02.034

Khajehpour M, Gelves G A and Sundaraj U. 2015. Modification of Montmorillonite with alkyl silanes and fluorosurfactant for clay/fluoroelastomer (FKM) nanocomposites. Clays and Clay Minerals 63: 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.2015.0630101









How to Cite

PATANJALI, P., CHOPRA, I., PATANJALI, N., & SINGH, R. (2021). A compendious review on clay modification techniques for wastewater remediation. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 90(12), 2262–2274. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v90i12.110309