Foot-and-mouth disease: Global status and Indian perspective
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Keywords:DIVA reactors, FMD control programme, FMD surveillance, FMDV serotypes, Global transmission
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The disease is a major threat to cattle, buffalo (both milk and meat) and pig production in endemic countries and therefore considered to cause food insecurity, both locally and globally. Currently, 6 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A, Asia-1, SAT-1,-2, and -3) are circulating globally, and serotype C has not been recorded since 1995. In India, the disease is caused by serotypes O, A and Asia-1, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected in serotypes. Serotype A viruses have been continuously emerging in the nature necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the country has been instrumental in formulation and implementation of FMD Control Programme through regular 6 monthly vaccination with the aim to create disease free zones in India. The control programme, in operation since X Plan, has resulted in progressive and substantial reduction in occurrence of the disease and DIVA reactors/converters in vaccinated areas. The present review summarizes the disease, the causative agent, and epidemiology of FMD in India and the world.
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