Growth performance and pathological lesions in brolier chickens fed raw or processed karanj (Pongalnia glabra) cake as protein supplement

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Broiler chickens, Calcium hydroxide, Growth performance, Karan} cake, Karanjin, Pathological lesions.,


Day-old commercial broiler chicks (520) were vaccinated against Marek's disease and distributed equally into 13 groups of 40 chicks each to study the effect of dietary inclusion of karna) (Ponganlia glabra) cake in broiler chickens. Each group was further replicated to 4 of 10 chicks each. A basal reference diet was formulated containing soybean meal (SBM) as the nlajor protein source. Another 12 isonitrogenous and isocaloric test diets 'were fonnulated by incorporating solvent extracted karan} cake (SKC), 1.5% NaOH treated SKC, 3.0% Ca (OHh treated SKC and 2% NaOH treated expeller pressed karanj cake (EKC) at 6.43, 12.86 or 25.72% to replace SBM nitrogen of reference diet at either 12.5,25 or 50%, respectively. Each diet was offered, ad lib. to 4 replicates of 10 chicks each. The raw SKC and EKC contained 0.132 and 0.324% karanjin, respectively. Treatment of SKC with either 1.5% NaOH or 3.0% Ca (OH)2 and EKC with 2% NaOH reduced the karanjin content to 0.062, 0.082 and 0.1630/0 respectively. Dietary incorporation of 1.5% NaOH-treated SKC could maintain the growth up to 4 weeks of age. However, growth depression was noticed in the same diet, subsequently. In the present study, in general no gross pathological lesions were observed due to dietary incorporation of SKC, NaOH treated SKC or Ca(OHh treated SKC by replacing soybean meal nitrogen at either 12.5 or 25% level. However, incorporation of NaOH treated EKC even at 25% level showed its adverse effect on liver. Dietary incorporation of either processed or unprocessed karanj cake beyond 25% level except NaOH treated SKC (50% replacement) resulted in histopathological abnormalities and the severity increased with increase in level of replacement. The severity of lesions was comparatively higher in the group fed diet incorporated with 25.72% NaOH (2%) treated EKC incorporated diet. Liver showed hepatic degeneration with distortion, kidney revealed tubular degeneration with necrotic lesions, spleen cells showed degeneration with necrotic foci and depletion of lymphocytes and testis revealed degenerative changes of testicular follicles and vaculation in 25.729fJ NaOH (2%) treated EKC incorporated diet. Feeding of SKC after treatment with either NaOH or Ca(OH)2 was beneficial instead of feeding SKC as such, since it inflicted more sever histopathological lesions in the vital organs of broiler chickens as compared to treated one. Replacement of SKC at 50% level with nitrogen of SBM resulted in pathological changes such as kidney showed mild tubular degeneration, spleen showed necrotic foci and lymphoid cell degeneration and bursa revealed severe depletion of lymphocytes with follicular atrophy. TreatInent with 1.5% NaOH effectively minimized the toxic effects of karanjin.



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PANDA, A. K., KUMAR, A. A., SINGH, S. D., & SASTRY, V. R. B. (2011). Growth performance and pathological lesions in brolier chickens fed raw or processed karanj (Pongalnia glabra) cake as protein supplement. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 78(9). Retrieved from