Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of ketorolac in the chicks

Abstract views: 240 / PDF downloads: 85


  • Y J MOUSA Assistant Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul 410 02 Iraq


Analgesia, Anti-inflammation, Antipyresis, Chicks, Ketorolac


Now-a-days, there is a need for newly, non-addicted and effective analgesics with less side effects. Therefore, the present study evaluated the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of ketorolac in 7–21 days old broiler chicks and its possible application in the related field. The analgesic median effective dose (ED50) of ketorolac that caused analgesia in 50% of the chicks was 9.1 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM). Ketorolac caused analgesic and antipyretic effects at multiple doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IM) in a dose dependent manner, whereas these percentages were significantly higher when ketorolac was injected @ 10 and 20 mg/kg, IM. All times recorded (15, 30, 60 and 120 min) for evaluating the analgesic effect of ketorolac produced analgesia while the higher and better analgesic efficacy was observed at 15 min after ketorolac injection. The injection of ketorolac @ 20 mg/kg, IM exerted anti-inflammatory activity by significantly reducing the right paw thickness of the chicks as a result of formaldehyde injection in comparison to control. There was no liver damage, impaired metabolism and function may be attributed to the ketorolac treatment in the chicks which was evaluated through estimation of serum AST and ALT concentrations. The study suggests the benefit of using ketorolac as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory drug in the field of veterinary medicine due to its good, reliable and efficient efficacy.


Download data is not yet available.


Alves D P and Duarte I D G. 2002. Involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect induced by dipyrone. European Journal of Pharmacology 444: 47– 52. DOI:

Alves D P, Soares A C, Francischi J N, Castro M S A, Perez A C and Duarte I D G. 2004. Additive antinociceptive—effect of combination of diazoxide, an activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and sodium nitroprusside and dibutyryl-cGMP. European Journal of Pharmacology 489: 59–65. DOI:

Aly S, Mahmoud M F, Hassan S H M and Fahmy A. 2015. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1: 8–15. DOI:

Botting R M. 2006. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenases: mechanisms, selectivity and uses. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 57:113–124.

Collin X, Robert J M, Duflos M, Wielgosz G, Le Baut G, Robin- Dubigeon C, Grimaud N, Lang F and Petit J Y. 2001. Synthesis of N–Pyridinyl (methyl)1, 2-dihydro-4-hydroxyl-2- oxoquinolone-3-carboxamides and analogues and their anti- inflammatory activity in mice and rats. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 53: 417–23. DOI:

Dixon W J. 1980. Efficient analysis of experimental observations. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 20: 441–62. DOI:

Finkel R, Clark M A, Cubeddu L X, Harvey R A and Champe P C. 2009. Anti-inflammatory drugs, pp. 500–18. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. (Eds) Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, USA.

Gupta A, Cheng J, Wang S and Barr G A. 2001. Analgesic efficacy of ketorolac and morphine in neonatal rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 68: 635–40. DOI:

Hendarman I, Triratna S and Kamaludin M T. 2014. Ketorolac vs. tramadol for pain management after abdominal surgery in children. Paediatrica Indonesiana 54: 118–21. DOI:

Hilal-Dandan R and Brunton L L. 2014. Pharmacotherapy of inflammation, fever, pain, and gout. Goodman and Gilman’s Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., USA.

Javier Lopez-Munoz F, Dýiaz-Revalb I, Terronc J A and Camposa M D. 2004. Analysis of the analgesic interactions between ketorolac and tramadol during arthritic nociception in rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 484: 157–65. DOI:

Jelinek G A. 2000. Ketorolac versus morphine for severe pain. British Medical Journal 321: 1236–37. DOI:

Katz M H. 2006. Bivariate statistics. Study design and statistical analysis, pp. 66–119. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. DOI:

Macario A and Lipman A G. 2001. Ketorolac in the era of cyclo- oxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A systematic review of efficacy, side effects, and regulatory issue. Pain Medicine 2: 336–51. DOI:

Medina-Santillán R, Reyes-García G, Rocha-González H I and Granados-Soto V. 2004. B vitamins increase the analgesic effect of ketorolac in the formalin test in rat. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society 47: 95–99.

Mousa Y J. 2014. Anaesthetic properties of ketamine in chicks stressed with hydrogen peroxide. Veterinarni Medicina 59: 369–75. DOI:

Mousa Y J and Mohammad F K. 2012. The analgesic efficacy of xylazine and dipyrone in hydrogen peroxide–induced oxidative stress in chicks. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences 26: 69– 76. DOI:

Mousa Y J and Al-Zubaidy M H I. 2019. Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine, ketamine/tramadol and ketamine/ketorolac in the chicks. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 20: 33–38.

O’Hanlon J J, Beers H, Huss B K D and Milligan K R. 1996. A comparison of the effect of intramuscular diclofenac, ketorolac or piroxicam on post-operative pain following laparoscopy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 13: 404–07. DOI:

Ollé F G, Opisso J L, Oferil R F, Sánchez P M, Calatayud M R and Cabré R I. 2000. Ketorolac versus tramadol: comparative study of analgesic efficacy in the postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy. Revista Española de Anestesiologíay Reanimación 47: 162–67.

Petrie A and Watson P. 1999. Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Sciences, pp. 90–140. Blackwell Science, Oxford, USA. Plummer D T. 1987. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry.

rd edn, pp.182–88. McGrew-Hill Co. Inc., New York, USA. Rai A and Ki ketorolac prevented respiratory failure in a child after cardiac surgery. Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 16: 68–69. DOI:

Rainer T H, Jacobs P, Ng Y C, Cheung N K, Tam M, Lam P K W, Wong R and Cocks R A. 2000. Cost effectiveness analysis of intravenous ketorolac and morphine for treating pain after limb injury: double blind randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 321: 1247–51. DOI:

Reitman S and Frankel S. 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruric transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28: 56–63. DOI:

Resman-Targoff B H. 1990. Ketorolac: a parenteral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 24: 1098–1104. DOI:

Runyon R P. 1977. Non-parametric Statistics: A Contemporary Approach, pp. 2–217. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading, Massachusetts, USA.

Shankariah M, Mishra M and Kamath R A. 2012. Tramadol versus ketorolac in the treatment of postoperative pain following maxillofacial surgery. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 11: 264–70. DOI:

Smyth E M and Fitz Gerald G A. 2009. The eicosanoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and related compounds, pp. 313–29. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. McGrew-Hill Co. Inc., New York, USA.

Soleimanpour M, Imani F, Safari S, Sanaie S, Soleimanpour H, Ameli H and Alavian S M. 2016. The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in the treatment of patients with hepatic disease: a review article. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine 6: e37822. DOI:

Sondhi S M, Dinodia M, Rani R, Shukla R and Raghubir R. 2009. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity evaluation of some pyrimidine derivatives. Indian Journal of Chemistry 49: 273–81. DOI:

Sufka K J, Roach J T, Chambliss Jr. W G, Broom S L, Feltenstein M W, Wyandt C M and Zeng L. 2001. Anxiolytic properties of botanical extracts in the chick social separation-stress procedure. Psycopharmacology 153: 219–24. DOI:

Vargas R, Maneatis T, Bynum L, Peterson C and McMahon F G. 1994. Evaluation of the antipyretic effect of ketorolac, acetaminophen, and placebo in endotoxin induced fever. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 34: 848–53. DOI:









How to Cite

MOUSA, Y. J. (2019). Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of ketorolac in the chicks. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 89(10), 1086–1090.