Ganoderma Root Rot Mortality: Managing the Growing Threat to the Tree behind Traditional Agroforestry in Indian Arid Region


Abstract views: 243 / PDF downloads: 134

Ganoderma Root Rot Mortality

Authors

  • Ritu Mawar Principal Scientist (Plant Pathology), ICAR-CENTRAL ARID ZONE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Saranya Ranganathan Scientist, Regional Research Station, ICAR-CAZRI, Jaisalmer, Rajasthan (India)

https://doi.org/10.59512/aaz.2023.62.3.1

Keywords:

Prosopis cineraria, Ganoderma, root rot, Trichoderma.

Abstract

Last couple of decades have witnessed large-scale mortality of Indian mesquite (Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce) or Khejri in specific areas of the Indian arid region. It is caused by Ganoderma lucidum, a root rot- causing soil-borne fungi. The disease is more common in sandy soils where trees experience greater moisture and temperature stress during the summers which predisposes them to the fungal infection. The infection spreads from diseased to healthy trees primarily through root-to-root contacts. Movement of injured lateral roots of P. cineraria from infected tree to healthy trees during mechanical ploughing is a common way of infection dissemination. In later stages of infection, the trees weaken and are then often attacked by an insect, Acanthophorus serraticornis, which aggravate the root rot incidence and accelerate the tree mortality. Isolating infected trees from healthy ones by digging a mechanical trench around has been advocated in past as a prophylactic measure. But the scattered distribution of trees in the fields limits adoption of this approach on a large scale and hence alternate approaches need to be developed to minimize the tree mortality. In this paper, we have discussed about symptoms, pathogen, predisposing factors and management strategies of Ganoderma induced tree mortality and also some ongoing studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Ritu Mawar, Principal Scientist (Plant Pathology), ICAR-CENTRAL ARID ZONE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

    DIVISION OF PLANT IMPROVEMENT AND PEST MANAGEMENT

References

Abdullah, F., Ilias, G.N.M., Nelson, M.M.Z., Nur, I.A. and Kalsom, Y.U. 2003. Disease assessment and the efficacy of Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent of basal stem rot of oil palms. Research Bulletin Science Putra 11: 31-33.

Adaskaveg, J.E., Gilbertson, R.L. and Blanchette, R.A. 1990. Comparative studies of delignification caused by Ganoderma species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 1932-1943.

Ahmed, S.I., Chaudhuri, K.K., Sharma, M. and Kumar, S. 2004. New insect pest records of khejri and Rohida from Rajasthan and their possible management strategies. The Indian Forester 130: 1361-1374.

Almeida, F., Wolf, J.M. and Casadevall, A. 2015. Virulence-associated enzymes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryotic Cell 14: 1173-1185. doi:10.1128/EC.00103-15. (Not referred in text)

Anonymous 1980. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. 1980. In Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418, USA. 237 p.

Bakshi, B.K., Reddy, M.A.R. and Singh, S. 1976. Ganoderma root rot mortality in Khair (Accacia catechu) in reforested stands. European Journal of Forest Pathology 6: 30-38.

Bhadra, M., Khair, A., Hussainm, A. and Sikander, M.M. 2016. In vitro evaluation of biocontrol agents and fungicides on wood decay fungi-Ganoderma associated with mortality of tree legumes. International Journal of Agricultural Research Innovation and Technology 6: 31-35.

Bhansali, R.R. 2012. Ganoderma diseases of woody plants of Indian arid zone and their biological control. In: Plant Defence: Biological Progress in Biological Control (Eds. J.M. Mérillon and K.G. Ramawat) 12, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1933-0_9,

Bhaskaran, R. 2000. Management of basal stem rot disease of coconut caused by Ganoderma lucidum. In: Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops (Eds. J. Flood , P.D. Bridge and M. Holderness), pp. 121-128. CABI publication.

Bhaskaran, R. and Ramanathan, T. 1984. Occurrence and spread of Thanjavur wilt disease of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal 15: 1-3.

Bhati, T.K. and Faroda, A.S. 2001. Integrated farming systems for sustained productivity in hot arid ecosystems for India. In: Proceedings of first International Agronomy Congress (Ed. P. Singh), , pp. 342-350. Proceedings of first international agronomy congress,

Bhati, T.K., 1995. Integrated land use systems for drylands. In: Land Resources and Their Management for Sustainability in Arid Regions (Eds. A.S. Kolakar, D.C. Joshi and A. Kar, Land Resources and their Management for Sustainability in Arid Regions. Scientific Publications, Jodhpur, India, pp. 176-185.

Bhati, T.K., 1997. Management of dryland crop in Indian arid ecosystem. In: Desertification Control in the Arid Ecosystem of India for Sustainable (Eds. S. Singh and A. Kar), Desertification Control in the Arid Ecosystem of India for Sustainable. Development. Agro Botanical Publishers, Bikaner, India, pp. 298-307.

Bilgrami, K.S. and Jamaluddin Rizwi, M.A. 1991. Fungi of India: Lists and References. Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi.

Bivi, M.R., Farhana, M.S.N., Khairulamzmi, A. and Idris, A.S. 2010. Control of Ganoderma boninense: A causal agent of basal stem rot disease in oil palm with endophytic bacteria in vitro. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12: 833-839.

Chen, C., Belanger, R.R., Benhamon, N. and Paulitz, T.C. 2000. Defence enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth –promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 56: 13-23.

Dai, Y.C., Cui, B.K., Yuan, H.S. and Li, B.D. 2007. Pathogenic wood-decaying fungi in China. Forest Pathology 37: 105-120. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2007.00485.x

Dubey, S.C., Suresh, M. and Singh, B. 2007. Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt. Biocontrol 40: 118-127.

Fernando, K.M.E.P. 2008. The host preference of a Ganoderma lucidum strain for three tree species of Fabaceae family; Cassia nodosa, Cassia fistula and Delonix regia. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 36: 323-326.

Flood, J., Hasan, Y., Turner, P.D. and O’Grady, G.B. 2000. The spread of Ganoderma from infective sources in the field and its implications for management of the disease in oil palm. In: In: Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops (Eds. J. Flood , P.D. Bridge and M. Holderness), pp. 101-112. CABI publication.Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops CABI Publishing.

Idris, A.S., Ismail, S., Arrifin, D. and Ahmad, H. 2002. Control of Ganoderma – infected palm – development of pressure injection and field applications. MPOB Information Series No. 131.

Ilias, G.N.M. 2000. Trichoderma and its efficacy as a bio-control agent of basal stem rot of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). [Ph.D. Thesis] University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Jazuli, N.A., Kamu, A., Chong, K.P., Gabda, D., Hassan, A., Abu Seman, I. and Ho, C.M. 2022. A review of factors affecting Ganoderma basal stem rot disease progress in oil palm. Plants 11: 2462. https:// doi.org/10.3390/plants11192462

Karthikeyan, A. and Bhaskaran, R. 1998. Management of Ganoderma disease of coconut. In: Proceedings International Workshop on Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops. Mardi, 5th–8th Oct. 1988. Serdang.

Kumar, Sampath and Nambiar, K.K.N. 1990. Ganoderma disease of arecanut palm-isolation, pathogenicity and control. Journal of Plantation Crops 18: 14-18.

Kumari, S. and Harsh, N.S.K. 2004. Host range of Ganoderma lucidum in India. Indian Journal of Forestry 27: 213-215

Lodha, S. 1983. Wilt of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) caused by Fusarium equiseti. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 31: 130-131.

Lodha, S. 1995. Soil solarisation, summer irrigation and amendments for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini and Macrophomina phaseolina in arid soils. Crop Protection 14: 215-219.

Lodha, S. and Harsh, L.N. 2009. Combined effects of bio control agents and residues on root rot mortality in Indian mesquite (Prosopis cineraria). Acta Horticulturae 883: 317-322.

Lodha, S., Dwivedi, N.K., Bhandari, D.C. and Bohra, M.D. 1994. Infection and colonization of jojoba by Ganoderma lucidum. Phytoparasitica 22: 229-231.

Lodha, S., Gupta, G.K. and Singh, S. 1986. Crop disease situation and some new records in Indian arid zone. Annals Arid Zone 25: 311-320.

Lodha, S., Mathur, B.K. and Solanki, K.R. 1990. Factors influencing population dynamics of Macrophomina phaseolina in arid soils. Plant and Soil 125: 75–80.

Mawar, R. 2019. Towards managing Ganoderma induced mortality in Indian mesquite by indigenous bio-resources. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 49(2): 127-134.

Mawar, R. and Mathur, T. 2022. Enhancing survival and multiplication of Trichoderma harzianum by Prosopis juliflora based compost in Indian arid region. In: Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms of Arid Region (Eds. Ritu Mawar, R.Z. Sayyed, Sushil K. Sharma, Krishna Sundari Sattiraju) Indian Phytopathology https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-022-00495-8

Mawar, R., Kumar, M. and Mathur, T. 2022. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin degradative enzymes in Ganoderma strains under arid conditions. Range Management and Agroforestry 43: 336-339.

Mawar, R., Ram, L., Deepesh and Mathur, T. 2020. Ganoderma. In: Beneficial Microbes in Agro-Ecology Vol II (Eds: Amaresan et al. xxxxxxxx), pp. 625-650. Publisher Academic Press, 936 p.

Mawar, R., Ram, L., Sharma, D. and Jangid, K. 2021b. Bacterial antagonists against Ganoderma lucidum the incitant of root rot of Indian mesquite. Indian Phytopathology 74(3): 843-848.

Mawar, R., Sharma, D. and Ram, L. 2021a. Potential of biocontrol agents against Ganoderma lucidum causing basal stem rot in mesquite (Prosopis cineraria) growing in arid region of India. The Journal of Forestry Research 32: 1269-1279.

Naidu, G.V.B., Kumar, S.N.S. and Sannamarappa, M. 1986. ‘Anabe roga’, Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.). Karst on arecanut palm: a review and further observations. Lal-Baugh 1(3): 14-20.

Neeraja, B., Snehalatharani, A., Maheswarappa, H.P., Ramanandam, G., Chalapathi Rao, N.B.V. and Padma, E. 2018. Management of basal stem rot (Ganoderma Wilt) in coconut with effective bioagents under field condition. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(09): 1051-1060.

Pilotti, C.A. 2005. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: Pathogen biology and epidemiology. Mycopathologia 159: 129-137. doi: 10.1007/s11046-004-4435-3.

Rees, R., Flood, J., Hasan, Y. and Cooper, R.M. 2007. Effects of inoculum potential, shading and soil temperature on root infection of oil palm seedlings by the basal stem rot pathogen Ganoderma boninense. Plant Pathology 56: 862-870.

Ryan, R.P., Germaine, K., Franks, A., Ryan, D.J. and Dowling, D.N. 2008. Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications. FEMS Microbiology Letters 278(1): 1-9.

Sankaran, K.V., Bridge, P.D. and Gokulapalan, C. 2005. Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops in India – An overview. Mycopathologia 159: 143-152.

Sapak, Z., Menon, S. and Ahamad, Z.A.M. 2008. Effect of endophytic bacteria on growth and suppression of Ganoderma boninense infection in oil palm. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 10: 127-132.

Sariah, M., Choo, C.W., Zakaria, H. and Norihan, M.S. 2005. Quantification and characterization of Tri¬choderma spp. from different ecosystems. Mycopatho¬logia 159: 113-117.

Schwarze, F.W.M.R. and Baum, S. 2000. Mechanisms of reaction zone penetration by decay fungi in wood of beech (Fagus sylvatica). New Phytologist 146: 129-140.

Sharma, S. and Sing, I.P. 2014. Growth and instability in cotton production in Rajasthan. Agriculture Situation in India. March 2014: 15-19.

Skaria, M., Smith, G.S. and R.L. Gilbertson, R.L. 1990. Root rot of young citrus caused by a species of Ganoderma lucidum Complex. Phytopathology 80(10): 974 (Not referred)

Srinivasulu, B. and Raghava, Rao, D.V. 2009. Biocontrol of major diseases of coconut. In: Role of Biocontrol Agents for Disease Management in Sustainable Agriculture (Eds. P. Ponmurugan and M.A. Deepa), pp. 352-368. SCITECH (India) Pvt., Chennai.

Srivastava, K.K. and Verma, N. 2008. Trees. In: Disease Management in Arid Land Crops (Eds. S. Lodha, R. Mawar and B.S. Rathore) , pp. 305-351. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur.

Suryanto, D., Wibowo, R.H., Sirregar, E.B.M. and Munir, E. 2012. A possibility of chinolytic bacteria utilization to control basal stem rot disease caused by Ganoderma boninense in oil palm seedlings. African Journal of Microbiology Research 69: 2053-2059.

Susanto, A., Sudharto, P.S. and Purba, R.Y. 2005. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations. Mycopathologia 159: 153-157.

Worrall, J.J. 2004. Armillaria root disease. Plant Health Instructor DOI:10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0706

Downloads

Submitted

08-05-2023

Published

28-09-2023

How to Cite

Ganoderma Root Rot Mortality: Managing the Growing Threat to the Tree behind Traditional Agroforestry in Indian Arid Region: Ganoderma Root Rot Mortality . (2023). Annals of Arid Zone, 62(3), 185-195. https://doi.org/10.59512/aaz.2023.62.3.1
Citation