The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences <p>This journal caters to a wide clientele comprising veterinarians, researchers and students.Articles are included on animal breeding and genetics, immunology, biotechnology, diseases, medicine and pharmacology, anatomy and histology, surgery, pathology, physiology, nutrition, milk, meat and other animal products, housing and fisheries from India and internationally.</p> <p><a href=""><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong></a><br /><br /><a href=""><strong>Subscription Information for Print Version</strong></a></p> Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture en-US The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 0367-8318 <p>The copyright of the articles published in <em>The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences</em> vests with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, who has the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained in these journals. The Council has no objection in using the material, provided the information is being utilized for academic purpose but not for commercial use. Due credit line should be given to the ICAR where information will be utilized.</p> Effect of weaning on performance of dairy buffaloes in tropical conditions - A review <p>Weaning is one of the important management practices, which is mostly followed at organized dairy farms in India and abroad. Generally breeding programme at buffalo farms focusses on milk production, however weaning can additionally boost the total milk production of the dairy farm, apart from increasing the reproductive potential of adults and promoting scientific rearing of young calves. There is little information on early weaning of buffalo calves and its effect on production and reproduction performances of dams during post-partum in Indian buffaloes. However, early weaning may be associated with the restriction of colostrum feeding and essential nutrients for dairy buffalo calves. Breaking the maternal bond is stressful to the calf and lactating buffaloes, which can be evaluated by biochemical indicators of stress in bovine models. Although, weaning at birth is well established in dairy cattle, in case of buffaloes, it may yield significant outcomes in terms of estimating actual milk production and increasing precious buffalo milk in the market for human consumption. On the other hand, weaning practice in dairy buffaloes has been limitedly investigated and not reviewed properly under variable conditions. Keeping in view the impact of weaning, the present paper has been aimed to review the effect of weaning on performance of dairy buffaloes under tropical conditions. The weaning practices in dairy buffaloes can reduce the feeding cost of calves and increase the reproductive potential of the dairy animals through early resumption of post-partum ovarian cyclicity. However, more trials need to be conducted in dairy buffaloes for understanding the relationship between the behaviour of weaned animals and age of weaning towards better adaptability and optimum production at dairy farms.</p> P K Bharti PRACHURYA BISWAL REENA KAMAL BHANITA DEVI TRIVENI DUTT Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1257–1263 1257–1263 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.100971 A scientometric study on prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs (Sus scrofa) of India <p>In this study, prevalence of the gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in pigs from India was estimated by employing scientometrics. The prevalence studies on the GI parasites of pigs (n=21) were acquired from online and offline databases (timeline: 2010-2021) and meta-analysis was performed using meta package in R-software. The prevalence of GI parasites in pigs was 54% (95% level: CI 39-69%, PI 5-96% of 8,921 samples tested) in India. A higher<br />prevalence of 81% was reported in 2010 than the recent years (2016-21). The highest prevalence in South zone (78%), and least in West zone (35%) was observed. The prevalence of GI parasites was highest in Tamil Nadu (96%) and lowest in Maharashtra (28%). The higher prevalence was observed in protozoa (30%) than other parasite classes and lower in cestodes (4%) in pigs. More number of studies have been reported on nematode parasites indicating its importance in pigs. A higher prevalence was observed in the studies conducted on samples (84%) collected from slaughterhouse than the faecal samples (46%) in pigs. Among the parasite species, coccidia (29%) were most commonly reported whereas Globocephalus urosubulatus (0.7%) was observed sporadically low. Amongst nematodes and trematodes, a higher prevalence in Ascaris spp. (27%) and Amphistomes (12%), correspondingly was observed. The high GI parasites prevalence zones, states, parasite classes, sample types and parasite species recognized will assist the stakeholders and decision makers, in control and preventive approaches. Further, this study provides the baseline information on GI parasites prevalence in pigs of India for devising effective deworming strategies which ultimately lead to beneficial piggery in India.</p> P Krishnamoorthy H K LAKSHMI S J SIJU K P SURESH B R SHOME Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1264–1273 1264–1273 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.127108 Molecular characterization of Brucella species detected from clinical samples of cattle and buffaloes <p>The present study was undertaken for molecular characterization of Brucella species of cattle and buffaloes. Clinical samples (1145) of unvaccinated cattle and buffaloes (200 blood samples, 710 sera, 190 vaginal swabs, 20 abomasal contents of foetus, 25 foetal tissues) and 146 blood samples of vaccinated animals were collected from dairy farms in and around Mumbai and Pune region. These samples were processed for isolation of Brucella organisms and further characterized by PCR and sequencing. A total of 26 (11.06%) Brucella isolates were recovered from 235 samples. Also, 5 isolates received from human cases were included in the study. BCSP 31 PCR showed an amplicon of 223 bp in all 31 isolates, 123 (61.5%) blood samples, 123 (64.73%) vaginal swabs and 27 (60%) aborted foetal material. IS711/AB and BM PCR showed an amplicon of 498 bp and 731 bp in 17 and 14 isolates, 42 (21%) and 38 (19%) blood samples, 43 (22.63%) and 34 (17.89%) vaginal swabs, while 7(15.55%) and 6 (13.33%) aborted foetal material, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis detected the ancestral origin of the organism. Rapid and correct diagnosis of brucellosis and vaccination is important to eradicate the disease. The molecular methods used in the present study speed up the diagnosis of the disease.</p> VARSHA THORAT ANIL KUMAR BANNALIKAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1274–1279 1274–1279 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.124795 Use of ketamine and xylazine anesthesia in dogs: A retrospective cohort study of 3,413 cases <p>The information regarding the risk of anesthesia-related death in veterinary medicine is scarce, and little is known about the mortality risk of specific anesthetics. The study conducted during 2019 at University of Sarajevo, Veterinary faculty, aimed to estimate the mortality risk of intermittent injectable ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in dogs and to investigate the potential relationship between mortality rate and anesthesiologists’ experience. Anesthetic records, where ketamine and xylazine combination was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, were reviewed and divided into two groups: inexperienced (AN1) and experienced anesthesiologists (AN2). Inexperienced anesthesiologists were constantly supervised by experienced ones, whose corrective interventions were recorded. Overall detected mortality rate was 0.15%, with 0.18% and 0.11% in the AN1 and AN2 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was not found. Records of the AN1 group revealed interventions of experienced anesthesiologist in 92% of cases. Detected mortality rate was within the values previously established for inhalant anesthesia indicating high safety in usage of investigated protocol, if performed by experienced anesthesiologists. The high percentage of interventions of a senior anesthesiologist suggests that supervised upskilling of inexperienced anesthesiologists before their independent work could result in a better outcome.</p> ISMAR LUTVIKADIC ALAN MAKSIMOVIC Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1280–1284 1280–1284 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.123310 Indigenous pig genetic resources: Preliminary documentation of current status and population trend of Tswana pigs in three districts of Botswana <p>This study aimed to assess the status, population and population trend of Tswana pigs in three districts of Botswana. A survey was conducted for three consecutive years from 2018 to 2020 in three districts to establish the status of indigenous Tswana pigs in the country in terms of their population. The three districts were Kgatleng, Kweneng and South-East. These districts were purposely chosen because they are the ones which have a considerable number of indigenous Tswana pigs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 71 farmers in 2018, 50 farmers in 2019 and 71 farmers in 2020. The population of indigenous Tswana pigs declined over the three years of study. South-East district had the highest number of indigenous pigs and Kweneng district had the least number during the three years of study. Sows and gilts were more than boars. The average herd size ranged from 3.5 to 20 over the three years. According to risk status classification by FAO, the status of indigenous Tswana breed in the southern districts of Botswana is ‘endangered’ and the estimated population growth rate is less than one. There is a strong positive and significant difference between the total number of pigs and the number of female pigs. The regression analysis indicated a positive impact of adult female pig numbers on the total number of Tswana pigs.</p> KETSHEPHAONE THUTWA RICKS GALETSENE CHABO PATRICK MONAMETSI KGWATALALA SHALAULANI JAMES NSOSO Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1296–1299 1296–1299 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.125939 Genetic polymorphism in HSPB6 gene and their association with heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle <p>Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to modulate cellular response during summer stress in dairy cattle. Among different classes of HSPs, heat shock protein 20 (HSPB6) is a member of the small HSP family protein, the role of which has not been fully characterized in the context of heat stress in cattle. This study identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HSPB6 gene in Sahiwal cattle and their associations with heat tolerance traits (RR, RT and HTC). Three SNPs (SNP 1-3) were reported, which included two transitions, viz. SNP1-g.436G&gt;A (Intron 1) and SNP2-g.2152A&gt;G (3′-UTR) and one transversion, viz. SNP3-g.2417A&gt;T (3′-UTR). The association analysis revealed that SNPs loci, viz. SNP1-g.436G&gt;A and SNP2-g.2152A&gt;G were significantly associated with heat tolerance traits. The GG genotype of SNP2-g.2152A&gt;G was significantly associated with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cattle. The association analysis of four available haplotypes, viz. Hap1 (GGA), Hap2 (AAA), Hap3 (GAA), and Hap4 (AAT) of HSPB6 gene with heat tolerance traits did not differ significantly with any haplotype in Sahiwal cattle. This study provides the first association analyses between the SNPs of HSPB6 gene and heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cattle, which could be used as effective SNP markers in genetic selection for heat tolerance in cattle breeding programs.</p> RAKESH KUMAR ISHWAR DAYAL GUPTA ARCHANA VERMA RAGINI KUMARI NISHANT VERMA RAJIB DEB RAMENDRA DAS M V CHAUDHARI Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1300–1306 1300–1306 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.109992 Genetic studies on growth and production traits in German Angora Rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions <p>This study aimed to assess the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on growth, wool yield and wool characteristics of German Angora rabbit. Data was collected on 607 adult rabbits over a period of four years (2018-2021). The least squares means of body weights (g) at various ages, wool yield (g) at I, II, III and IV clip and wool characteristics assessed by staple length (cm) and fiber diameter (μ) were estimated. Sires of the rabbit progenies demonstrated highly significant effect (P&lt;0.01) on the studied traits except wool characteristics. Sex of the rabbits had significant effect on body weight at 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 24th weeks of ages and wool yield at III clip, with greater estimates of females than the males for III clip, staple length, and 24th weeks body weight. Winter and autumn seasons were the most favourable seasons in comparison to summer season for estimated traits. Winter born kits had the highest body weights of 683±20.1, 961±24.3, 1263±27.5, 1484±34.0, 1735±37.1, 1942±40.1, 2136±36.9, 2232±36.7, 2341±37.4 and 2429±37.4 g and the summer born kits had the lowest body weights of 588±22.0, 820±27.2, 1037±31.2, 1307±38.0, 1515.79±41.0, 1696±44.1, 1847±41.4, 1920±41.0, 2034±42.4 and 2139±41.6 g, at biweekly interval from 6th to 24th, respectively. Rabbits with litter size less than six performed better in comparison to other groups for all growth traits and wool yield at I and III clip. The heritability estimates were found positive and high in magnitude for all growth traits, moderate for wool clip at different clips and very low for staple length. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were found to be very high and significant among growth traits and low to moderate among wool traits. The study revealed scope for further improvement in growth and wool yield by adopting selective breeding in the colony.</p> ABDUL RAHIM K S RAJARAVINDRA OM HARI CHATURVEDI RAJNI CHAUDHARY S R SHARMA Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1307–1313 1307–1313 10.56093/ijans.v92i10.124611 Effect of supplemental malic acid on methane mitigation in paddy straw based complete diet for sustainable animal production in indigenous dairy cattle <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental malic acid on mitigation of methane emission for dairy cattle by in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro finding was validated by in vivo feeding trial in indigenous dairy cattle. Ten dairy cattle with uniform milk production were selected and divided into two groups with five animals each and they were fed with and without supplementation of malic acid at 0.39% in 60% paddy straw and 40% concentrate mixture based complete diet. The malic acid at 0.39% was the minimum level which resulted in highly significant reduction of methane by 15.95% and methane (ml) per 100 mg of truly digested substrate by 15.69%, respectively than control in in vitro study. The methane emission per animal per day and per kg dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly decreased by 3.26% and 3.11%, respectively in malic acid supplemented group than control. The methane emission per kg milk production was significantly reduced by 5.43% in malic acid supplemented group than control. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and propionic acid were significantly increased by 2.69% and 11.71%, respectively in malic acid supplemented group than control. It was concluded that the supplementation of malic acid at 0.39% of paddy straw based complete diet significantly reduced the methane emission per animal per day and per kg milk production than control in indigenous dairy cattle.</p> A BHARATHIDHASAN Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1314–1319 1314–1319 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.100033 Assessing essentiality of nickel in growing Hariana heifers by determining its effect on performance, nitrogen and mineral metabolism, urease activity, and endocrine biomarkers <p>The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nickel (Ni) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, urease activity, and endocrine variables in growing cattle. Growing Hariana heifers (18) were randomly assigned into three groups (n=6), i.e. groups either without Ni supplementation (Ni0.0; control) or supplemented with 1.5 mg of Ni/kg DM (Ni1.5), and 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM (Ni3.0). The experiment lasted for 90 days. Heifers supplemented with Ni showed higher nutrient intake and average daily gain (ADG) than control group. The nutrient digestibility was not affected by treatment, while the Ni supplemented animals showed higher intake, excretion, and nitrogen balance. The urease activity was comparable and higher in the Ni1.5 and Ni3.0 groups than in the control group. There was no effect of treatment on the metabolism of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr). However, iron (Fe) retention showed a negative association with Ni levels. Plasma cortisol concentration was lower while the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) were higher in the Ni3.0 group compared to the Ni0.0 group, with Ni1.5 being intermediate. The plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were not affected by dietary treatment. Plasma Ni concentration showed a dose dependent increase whereas, plasma levels of other minerals were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dietary Ni supplementation in growing Hariana heifers improves performance and nutrient utilization by modulating urease activity and endocrine growth biomarkers.</p> MUNEENDRA KUMAR ANUJ SINGH VINOD KUMAR RAJU KUSHWAHA SHALINI VASWANI AVINASH KUMAR PANKAJ KUMAR SHUKLA YAJUVENDRA SINGH Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1320–1326 1320–1326 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.125138 Changes in in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of crossbred cattle (Bos taurus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in response to diet at different time intervals <p>Assessment of the diet adaptation period is critical for feeding experiments in ruminants to have significant changes in the concerned parameters. An in vitro trial was conducted to investigate the impact of the sampling at different time periods (day 0, 11, 21, and 60) to determine the adaptation period of feed treatment over the ruminal fermentation parameters in crossbred Karan-Fries cattle (Bos taurus) and Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) heifers. Two types of total mixed rations (TMRs), viz. high forage diet (HFD) having roughage and concentrate ratio (R:C) as 70:30 and high concentrate diet (HCD) having R:C as 40:60 were formulated, and fed to cattle and heifers. Rumen liquors were collected from all the animals on 0, 11, 21, and 60 days. HFD and HCD diets were incubated with strained rumen liquor collected from cattle and buffalo adopting Menke’s in vitro gas procedure. The results showed that most of the in vitro rumen fermentation parameters, viz. total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) (mM/ml), acetate (%), propionate (%), butyrate (%), acetate propionate ratio (A:P), partitioning factor (PF) and microbial biomass production (MBP) (mg), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (%) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (%) were significantly different at day 0 and 11 compared to day 21. Afterward, up to day 60, there were no effects reported except increased IVDMD and IVOMD for buffalo compared to day 21. As a result of our findings, it can be concluded that there are significant differences in rumen fermentation parameters at 11 and 21 days and that the time period for cattle and buffalo should not be reduced to 11 days from 21 days in order to achieve proper feed adaptation and stabilize the rumen fermentation process. Further research is needed to investigate the impacts of the adaption period at various time intervals.</p> SONAM DIXIT SACHIN KUMAR A K TYAGI Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1327–1331 1327–1331 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.126763 Comparison of nutrient intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation along with body weight gain in cattle and buffalo fed maintenance diet <p>In the present study, feed and nutrient intake, body weight changes, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters were compared in cattle and buffaloes. Seven cattle (T1) and seven buffaloes (T2) were placed in two groups based on body weight employing completely randomized design. Experimental feeding in the form of total mixed ration (TMR) was carried out for 75 days having concentrate (C) and roughage (R) in 30C:70R. The daily intake of dry matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients was non-significant between cattle and buffaloes. While in terms of percentage and metabolic body weight, the same parameters were significantly lower in cattle compared to buffalo. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF marginally differed between cattle and buffaloes. Rumen liquor pH, ammonia, non-protein and soluble nitrogen concentration was non-significantly different between cattle and buffaloes with significant lower value of total volatile fatty acids (12.25 vs. 14.19 mM/dl), total nitrogen (90.53 vs. 101.73 mg/dl) and TCA precipitable nitrogen (51.33 vs. 61.36 mg/dl) in cattle compared to buffaloes. Thus, from the study, it may be concluded that under similar feed and managemental conditions, intake of dry matter and nutrients per unit of body weight was lower, with non-significant difference in nutrients digestibility and inferior nitrogen fermentation as observed in cattle than buffaloes.</p> P DAS B R DEVALIA M A SHEKH P M LUNAGARIYA K N WADHWANI N P SARVAIYA Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1332–1336 1332–1336 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.124959 Effect of different combinations of probiotic, chicory root powder and coriander seed powder on growth, carcass, immunity, serum parameters and economics of broilers <p>The trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to to evaluate the synergistic effect of probiotic (Pro), chicory root powder (CRP) and coriander seed powder (CSP) on the performance of broiler chicken. A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 5 birds in each. Treatment groups included T1 as control, i.e. basal diet (BD) without any growth promoter and T2 - BD + antibiotic (BMD @ 500 gm/ton). In the remaining experimental diets, T3 - pro (@ 10 gm/100 kg) + CRP (@ 1.0%), T4 - pro (@ 10 gm/100 kg) + CSP (@ 1.5%), T5 - CRP (@ 1.0%) + CSP (@ 1.5%) and T6 - pro (@ 10 gm/100 kg) + CRP (@ 1.0%) + CSP (@ 1.5%). The results revealed that supplementation of pro + CRP significantly increased the body weight gain during prestarter, starter and finisher phase and improved the feed conversion ratio during finisher phase compared to other treatment groups. Supplementation of different dietary groups did not show any significant effect on feed intake and various slaughter parameters of broilers. Whereas, the humoral immune response to ND vaccine and immune organ weights were significantly higher in all the test diets (T3 to T6) compared to control and antibiotic groups. Supplementation of probiotic with chicory combination group significantly reduced the serum total cholesterol and recorded higher returns over feed cost compared to other treatment groups. It can be concluded that combination of probiotic (10 g) with chicory root powder (1.0%) proved more effective than combinations of other additives.</p> SRINIVAS GURRAM CHINNI PREETAM V VIJAYA LAKSHMI K RAJU M V L N VENKATESWARLU M Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1337–1342 1337–1342 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.119364 Effect of replacing wheat with broken rice on nutrients metabolisability, egg production and quality in White Pekin ducks <p>A study was conducted in the tropical coastal region of Odisha in 2019 to find out the effect of replacing wheat with broken rice (BR) on nutrients metabolisability, egg production and quality in White Pekin ducks. White Pekin ducks (45, 165 days) were divided into three groups with three replicates in each group and each replicate had five ducks. Three experimental diets without (BR-0) and with BR, replacing 50 (BR-50) and 100 (BR-100), per cent wheat were prepared. The above diets were offered randomly to the groups till 40 weeks followed by conduction of a metabolic trial. The dry matter intake (g/d) was similar among the groups. The metabolisability percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre in BR-0 and BR-50 were similar and higher than BR-100. There was no significant difference in N balance (g/d) among the groups. The total egg production, duck day egg production percentage and feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. The external and internal egg quality parameters were similar among the groups as well. It was concluded that wheat can be replaced with broken rice at 50% level in the diets of White Pekin ducks during first phase of laying under intensive rearing system with increase in the metabolisability of the nutrients of the feed without affecting the performance.</p> P K NAIK B K SWAIN S K SAHOO D KUMAR S K MISHRA C K BEURA Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1343–1347 1343–1347 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.117899 Quality characteristics and shelf-life of meat of quail birds-fed diets supplemented with grape pomace <p>This investigation aims to determine the effect of grape pomace supplementation on quail meat’s quality and shelf life. Growing 121-day-old quail males were separated into groups of 30 birds each (3 replicates of 10 birds each). For 42 days, the quails were fed a diet enriched with 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 g/kg of grape pomace (control group and experimental groups). After the feeding session, ten quails were chosen randomly and slaughtered humanely to test the meat quality. Except for redness, which showed a lower value for experimental groups compared to the control group, neither the physicochemical characteristics nor the eating quality of breast meat varied significantly across treatments. The experimental groups also produced alterations in the fatty acid profile, with an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly due to an increase in linoleic acid concentration. The addition of grape pomace reduced lipid oxidation in meat at 1 and 5 days post-mortem. On post-mortem day 5, the control group meat had more bacteria than the experimental group meat. Overall, supplementation with grape pomace significantly improved the fatty acid profile and showed the capacity to extend shelf life.</p> AZAD SABOW NAZIM ABDULLA HOZAN MUSTAFA AHMED ABUBAKAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1348–1354 1348–1354 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.127196 Seasonal and lactational variations in fatty acid profile of milk in indigenous cattle <p>The present study was conducted on quality and bioactive components in milk of Kankrej and Sahiwal indigenous cattle breeds at Livestock Research Station, Kodemdesar and College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner situated in hot-arid region of Rajasthan. Representative milk samples were collected and brought to the laboratory. The variance analysis observed significant effect of season on SFA of Kankrej and Sahiwal, and revealed that the total MUFA in Kankrej differ significantly. Significant effect of season on PUFA in Sahiwal and Kankrej cattle was also observed. Significant effect of season on Omega fatty acids in Sahiwal and Kankrej cattle except Omega-9 fatty acid in Sahiwal cattle was seen. The analysis of variance found highly significant effect of season on SCFA whereas non-significant effect on LCFA in Kankrej and Sahiwal cattle. Effect of season on MCFA was found significant in Sahiwal whereas non-significant effect was found in Kankrej cattle. The analysis of variance observed significant effect of various lactation stage on MUFA, Omega-9 and MCFA fatty acids for Kankrej and Sahiwal cattle and on SCFA in Sahiwal, and non-significant effect in Kankrej whereas significant effect on LCFA in Kankrej and nonsignificant effect in Sahiwal cattle.</p> GEETESH MISHRA S C GOSWAMI SANJITA SHARMA A K JHIRWAL RAVTARAM Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1355–1359 1355–1359 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.125145 Sustainability of migratory pastoralism through value addition during Covid-19 pandemic in Kachchh district <p>This study was conducted among the Maldhari community to understand the sustainability of migratory pastoralism during Covid-19. Bhuj and Lakpat Talukas of Kachchh district, Gujarat were selected to study the effect of profile variables on the annual income and net income of the families. The study revealed that family size and taluka were the significant factors influencing total income whereas taluka was the only significant factor influencing net income. Due to reduced sale of milk resulting from Covid-19, most of the milk was converted i to khoa and the income generated from its sale was the major source of income for the migratory families. Cow dung fetched a minimal price which served as major source of their livelihood with no input cost. The value addition with better marketing facilities can significantly enhance the income of the pastoralists in the Kachchh district.</p> DINESH KUMAR KAVYA DASHORA SURYA PRAKASH SINGH VIVEK KUMAR S N NAIK HITESH JANI VIKRAM KAPALI PORWAL Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1360–1363 1360–1363 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.124479 Comparison of the sedative and analgesic effects of butorphanol with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine following propofol induction and isoflurane maintenance in canines <p>Adequate sedation and excellent depth of analgesia were recorded in all the four groups after induction to the end of surgical procedure, however, significantly higher sedation score and depth of analgesia were observed in group D and significantly lower was observed in group A in comparison to other groups. Butorphanol with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine provides adequate sedation and analgesia in the dogs, before induction with propofol, so it made handling of the animals proper and safe before induction. Dexmedetomidine produces most profound sedation and analgesia followed by midazolam and acepromazine along with butorphanol.</p> RAJESH KUMAR AAKANKSHA ARCHANA KUMARI N K VERMA A C SAXENA M HOQUE Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1285–1288 1285–1288 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.127068 Expression spectrum of new circFBN1 in various tissues and follicles of Taihang chicken <p>In this study, the new circFBN1 derived from the FBN1 gene was identified. The expression spectrum of circFBN1 in various tissues and follicles of Taihang chickens was verified and analyzed. The effects on proliferation of GCs were checked. The results revealed that circFBN1 is indeed present and was differentially expressed in tissues and follicles and significantly promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggested that circFBN1 could affect chicken follicular development by regulating the proliferation of GCs. These results will enable us recognize the molecular mechanisms in animal reproductive regulation.</p> TENG-HE MA MENG-XIAO LI BEI-BEI ZHANG XUE-NAN LI JIA-RONG WEI HONG-NA WANG BIN WANG YU-XIANG SHI Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1289–1291 1289–1291 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.127498 Community animal health centre approach and its impact on the delivery of animal health services <p>The present paper documents the effect of Community Animal Health Centres (CAHCs) on accessibility, affordability and quality parameters pertaining to animal health services rendered by them and subsequent impact on livestock health and productivity. The CAHCs were established in three tribal dominated villages of Banka district (Bihar) which were operated by trained and certified local youths. Ex-post-facto approach was adopted in the study, and data were collected from randomly selected 120 livestock owners in the geographic area served by the CHACs. It was found that, as a result of the CAHCs, the average distance of travel for seeking animal health services has reduced by 71.97%; ease of access has increased by 43.96%; timeliness of services has increased by 44.92%; average cost of seeking each of the animal health service has reduced by 79.71% and transportation cost associated with travel requirements has reduced by 44.92%. The CAHCs have also resulted in reduction in mortality among poultry birds and goats by 19 and 50%, respectively.</p> SHRIDHAR PATIL R K SOHANE DHARMENDRA KUMAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1292–1295 1292–1295 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.117599 Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance of Osmanabadi kids <p>The present experiment was conducted for 90 days to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on performance of Osmanabadi kids at Osmanabadi goat unit of Red Kandhari Research and Instructional Farm, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, MAFSU, Parbhani, Maharashtra. Eighteen male or female kids of 3-6 months age were selected and randomly divided on equal weight basis into three treatment groups viz. T0 (control) with basal ration, T<sub>1</sub> group with basal ration plus probiotics (Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus), T<sub>2</sub> group with basal ration plus probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus). The averages for weekly body weight (kg) of kids in different treatment groups (T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>) at the end of experiment were 12.69±0.27, 13.78±0.48, 14.94±0.34 kg, respectively. The weekly body weight gain was 0.35±0.01, 0.50±0.01, 0.58±0.01 kg, respectively while the average daily gain was 50.33±1.45, 70.83±0.70, 83.33±1.65 g, respectively, for T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> groups. At the end of 13th week, FCR for T<sub>2</sub> group was significantly lower (6.14±0.01) as compared to T<sub>1</sub> (7.14±0.04) and T0 (9.20±0.28) groups. Highly significant differences were observed for weekly body weight, weekly body weight gain, average daily gain, weekly and daily feed intake. It can be concluded that Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus supplemented group (T<sub>2</sub>) exhibited better performance in terms of growth and FCR as compared to Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus supplemented group (T<sub>1</sub>) and control (T<sub>0</sub>).</p> M B A SIDDIQUI N B PAWAR M D KHARWADKAR S SAJID ALI V K MUNDE A K WANKAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1364–1367 1364–1367 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.125037 Pre- and post-spawning condition descriptors for the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala <p>Mrigal or Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton 1822) is one of the important aquaculture species in India. During 2017, mrigal contributed 5.7% to the aquaculture production of India. The present study was undertaken to describe the hatchery-level pre- and post-spawning condition, i.e. weight changes in the length-weight relationships (LWRs) and the weight-weight relationships (WWRs) associated with the two phases for the mrigal males and females used as broodstock from a commercial IMC hatchery. For the 18 pairs of individuals sampled, the TL (total length) ranged from 42–55 cm and 39–54 cm, and the BW (body weight) from 0.83–1.46 kg and 0.52–1.35 kg respectively for males and females. The GSI was recorded at 10.5% for males and 20.4% for females. The pre- and post-pawning weights differed significantly in both sexes based on paired t-test. Trends in the LWR and weight-weight slopes have been discussed in the article.</p> RAJU M TIBILE GAJANAN S GHODE RAVINDRA A PAWAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 92 11 1368–1371 1368–1371 10.56093/ijans.v92i11.126629