The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS <p>This journal caters to a wide clientele comprising veterinarians, researchers and students.Articles are included on animal breeding and genetics, immunology, biotechnology, diseases, medicine and pharmacology, anatomy and histology, surgery, pathology, physiology, nutrition, milk, meat and other animal products, housing and fisheries from India and internationally.</p> <p><a href="https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/eb_ans"><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD</strong></a><br /><br /><a href="https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/sub_ans"><strong>Subscription Information for Print Version</strong></a></p> en-US The copyright of the articles published in <em>The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences</em> vests with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, who has the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained in these journals. The Council has no objection in using the material, provided the information is being utilized for academic purpose but not for commercial use.Due credit line should be given to the ICAR where information will be utilized. editor.ijans@icar.gov.in (Editor) support.epubs@icar.gov.in (Shantanu Kumar Singh) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Report on first confirmed outbreaks of contagious agalactia in small ruminants from Maharashtra State of India https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/120217 <p>Mycoplasma agalactiae causes contagious agalactia, a serious, economically important and OIE listed disease<br />syndrome, in sheep and goats. There are no reports of this disease from Maharashtra state of India. The aim of<br />the present investigation was to record epidemiological information and to detect M. agalactiae in clinical samples<br />from natural outbreaks of contagious agalactia. Clinically, anorexia, reluctance to follow the herd, lethargy and fever<br />were the initial clinical signs noted. Later, mastitis, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis were noted as important clinical<br />signs in both sheep and goats. However, all signs were not present in every case. DNA was extracted from mastitic<br />milk and articular exudate collected from suspected cases and PCR was performed using primers specific for 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma spp. The agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR product revealed the presence of bands of expected size (278 bp) indicating positive amplification. The nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR amplicons showed 100% identity with 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates JF4428 (Accession No. LT578418.1). The outbreaks of contagious agalactia were confirmed for the first time in Maharashtra state of India and carries epidemiological significance. </p> VITTHAL DHAYGUDE, ABHIJIT BARATE, BHUPESH KAMDI, JAYANT SUKARE, DIVYA SABHARWAL, ASHISH BHAGWAT, PRASHANT PAWAR, DUSHYANT MUGLIKAR Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/120217 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Relative expression profile of Kisspeptin (Kiss1-Kiss1r) and gonadotrophin receptor in the ovarian follicular tissue and their association in the Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/106785 <p>In the past decade, kisspeptin research was primarily focussed on the regulation of GnRH release in hypothalamus. Present study was designed to explore the expression of extra-hypothalamic kisspeptinergic (Kiss1- Kiss1r) system in the follicular compartment of buffalo ovary. Buffalo genitalia (n=32) were collected immediately after exsanguinations and categorized into early luteal (EL), mid luteal (ML), follicular (FL) and acyclic (n=8 per group), based on the gross ovarian morphology. Ovarian follicular tissue samples were subjected to total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and qPCR amplification of Kiss1, Kiss1r, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) along with an endogenous control (β-actin) gene. The expression of ovarian Kiss1 transcripts was abundant in the cyclic than acyclic stage. The fold change was significantly upregulated in ML (66.79 fold) followed by EL (28.64 fold) and FL (14.09 fold) stages against the acyclic stage (calibrator). Similarly, the Kiss1r expression was highest at ML (77.26 fold). The expression of FSHR was upregulated at FL (15.08 fold) stage in response to follicular activity and subsequently observed to be down regulated at EL (0.09 times) and ML (0.27 times). Further, the expression of Kiss1 was positively correlated with FSHR only at ML and FL. From this study, it could be concluded that Kiss1 and Kiss1r are expressed in the buffalo ovarian follicle and their expression is associated with the stage of estrous cycle.</p> Girish Kumar Mishra, Manas Patra Kumar, Laishram Kipjen Singh, Vikramaditya Upmanyu, Soumendu Chakravarti, Mathesh Karikalan, Manjit Panigrahi, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Goutam Kumar Das, Krishnaswamy Narayanan, Harendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/106785 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Alleviation of cold stress induced oxidative stress in White Leghorn Chicken by Chromium and Vitamin C supplementation https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115732 <p>White Leghorn layer chicken experienced cold stress during December, 2019 to January, 2020 with lowest<br />minimum AT and lowest average temperature during later part of January, 2020. Cold stress caused increase<br />in HSP70 and SOD of White Leghorn layer chicken. Supplementation of chromium picolinate (@ 400 μg/kg<br />feed) and vitamin C (@ 250 mg/kg of feed) alleviated cold stress and cold induced oxidative stress in White Leghorn<br />chicken. Alleviation of stress by supplementation of chromium picolinate and vitamin C could be estimated by<br />the measure of drop in HSP70 and SOD. Supplementation of chromium picolinate and vitamin C also had beneficial<br />impacts on egg length during cold stress. Combination of chromium picolinate and vitamin C was best to alleviate<br />cold stress while vitamin C was best to lower oxidative stress in layer. </p> Prava Mayengbam, M Ayub Ali, M C Lallianchhunga, Thingujam Chaa Tolenkhomba, Ranjan Goswami, J S KHUKHODZIINAI, RANJANA Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115732 Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Estimation of Heritability of Karan Fries Cattle using Bayesian Procedure https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/117167 <strong><strong></strong></strong><p> <strong> </strong>The Bayesian model was applied for analyzing the first lactation in Karan Fries cattle. First lactation data of production (305-day or less milk yield and daily milk yield) were collected from the history-cum pedigree sheet and daily milk yield registers of the division of Dairy Cattle Breeding (DCB), National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal. In the Bayesian paradigm, MCMC methods are applied to solve complex mathematical problems to estimate a large number of unknown parameters. Assuming linear mixed model and using the different prior set up, diagnostic of MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) was carried out graphically as well as by Heidelberg stationarity test. Variance estimates of the random effects (VA) and residual variance estimation (VR) and Variance estimate location effects i.e. fixed effects were calculated along with effective sample size. Finally, heritability (h<sup>2</sup>) estimates for First lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305DMY) was estimated along with its credible interval.</p> Himadri Shekhar Roy, Amrit Kumar Paul, Ranjit Kumar Paul, Ramesh Kumar Singh, MD `YEASIN, Prakash Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/117167 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Economic evaluation of therapeutic diet formulated for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) infected crossbred calves https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/117882 The study aimed to evaluate the economics involved in the formulation of a therapeutic diet for Foot and Mouth Disease and its impact on the convalescence period. The diet had high protein with varied physical forms (mash and cooked form). A total of 22 Holstein Friesian crossbred male calves (10-12 months) were considered in which 4 calves were of Control (CON) and 18 calves of treatment groups. The treatment group animals namely, Therapeutic Diet-1 (TD-1), Therapeutic Diet-2 (TD-2), and Therapeutic Diet-3(TD-3) were infected with the FMD virus. The therapeutic diet was fed to calves in the morning and <em>ad libitum</em> hybrid Napier green fodder in the afternoon. The experiment was carried out for 42days. At the end of the experiment, animals gained 18.73, 19.67, 19.10 and 19.42 kg body weight in CON, TD-1, TD-2 and TD-3 groups respectively. Bodyweight gain between the groups was non-significant. The total cost of feeding inclusive of both therapeutic diet and green fodder was Rs 546.24, 523.43, 521.56 and 509 respectively. Cost per kg body weight gain was calculated as Rs 29.15, 26.61 27.31 and 26.23 respectively. The cost per kg body weight gain was non-significant among the groups. The cost per kg body weight gain was highest in the CON group compared to infected groups. It can be concluded from the present study that during FMD infectious conditions, the therapeutic diet feeding either mash or cooked (with or without CNS) not only helped in regaining the bodyweight quickly but also reduced the feeding and treatment cost. B H. M Patel, ARUN SOMAGOND, A K PATTANAIK, TRIVENI DUTT, ANIKET SANYAL, GANESH SHESHAGIR, V BHANUPRAKASH, G K GAUR, MUKESH SINGH, SEEMA YADAV Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/117882 Tue, 22 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Phylogenetic exploration and haemato-biochemical significance of Anaplasma marginale infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111924 <p>During 2017-2020, a total of 8352 buffalo blood samples were screened microscopically for <em>Anaplsma </em>species and 104 positive samples were found. Later on same samples were confirmed positive using genomic DNA PCR technique. For efficiency of PCR technique, a total of 335 blood samples were randomly chosen. Microscopy revealed <em>Anaplasma </em>species in erythrocytes of 1.19% (4 samples) of the total blood samples (n=335). Initially PCR assay was standardized targeting 16S rRNA for detection of genus <em>Anaplasma </em>with expected amplicon size 781 bp. Thereafter, <em>msp1 β</em> gene was targeted for species level identification of <em>Anaplasma</em> (<em>Anaplasma marginale</em>) with expected amplicon size 407 bp. A total of fourteen samples out of 335 samples (4.17%) found positive by PCR. Randomly, two confirmed positive samples were sent for bidirectional sequencing. The sequencing results, submitted in GenBank(MW269530, MW269531), further confirm the <em>Anaplasma marginale</em> infection in buffalo. The study show higher specificity and sensitivity of PCR test above blood smear examination. Erythron of infected animals showed significantly low level of mean Hb, PCV, RBC count, MCH, MCHC and high level of mean MCV, indicating regenerative hypochromic macrocytic anaemia. Infected animals had a significantly low mean level of total protein, albumin and globulin and significantly high level of phosphorus, total bilirubin, direct and indirect bilirubin. The current study provides indication of the association between <em>A. marginale</em> infection and probable liver damage or hepatic fatty degeneration. Nevertheless advanced studies are warranted to explain the precise pathophysiological mechanism of this association.</p> Anita Ganguly, Biswa Ranjan Maharana, Ankit Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111924 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Immunological effect of sparfloxacin in goats https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/112830 <p>In the present study, the immunological effects of a fluoroquinolone, sparfloxacin, were studied in goats after<br />multiple i.m. administration. Three groups of goats (4 goats in each) were selected. Group I consisted of saline control, Group II contained animals with antigen (Ag) control [2 ml of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC), Ag given on 1st day as sensitizing dose and on 10th day as challenging dose] and Group III consisted of animals exposed to sparfloxacin and SRBC Ag (Sparfloxacin @ 5 mg/kg i.m. daily for 7 days during sensitizing and challenging period and SRBC as given in Group II). The blood samples were collected on 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment. The immunological parameters evaluated were haemagglutination (HA) test for humoural immune response (HIR) whereas delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) for evaluating cell mediated immune response (CMIR). DTH was assessed by injecting 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivative (PPD) in the skin of the neck region as well as by absolute lymphocyte count. There was no significant effect of sparfloxacin on humoural immune response as assessed by HA test. DTH assessed by DNCB mitogen was significantly higher in sparfloxacin treated group as compared to antigen treated whereas in case of PPD mitogen there was no significant effect of the drug. Absolute lymphocyte count differed significantly in sparfloxacin treated group (6499.75±19.87) with antigen treated group (5485.00±19.87). Thus, it can be concluded that sparfloxacin has some immunomodulatory effect with respect to cell mediated immune response in goats.In the present study, the immunological effects of a fluoroquinolone, sparfloxacin, were studied in goats after multiple i.m. administration. Three groups of goats (4 goats in each) were selected. Group I consisted of saline control, Group II contained animals with antigen (Ag) control [2 ml of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC), Ag given on 1st day as sensitizing dose and on 10th day as challenging dose] and Group III consisted of animals exposed to sparfloxacin and SRBC Ag (Sparfloxacin @ 5 mg/kg i.m. daily for 7 days during sensitizing and challenging period and SRBC as given in Group II). The blood samples were collected on 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment. The immunological parameters evaluated were haemagglutination (HA) test for humoural immune response (HIR) whereas delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) for evaluating cell mediated immune response (CMIR). DTH was assessed by injecting 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivative (PPD) in the skin of the neck region as well as by absolute lymphocyte count. There was no significant effect of sparfloxacin on humoural immune response as assessed by HA test. DTH assessed by DNCB mitogen was significantly higher in sparfloxacin treated group as compared to antigen treated whereas in case of PPD mitogen there was no significant effect of the drug. Absolute lymphocyte count differed significantly in sparfloxacin treated group (6499.75±19.87) with antigen treated group (5485.00±19.87). Thus, it can be concluded that sparfloxacin has some immunomodulatory effect with respect to cell mediated immune response in goats. </p> Vivek Pratap Singh, RAMESH KUMAR NIRALA, V K GOND, S K GANGWAR, K ANJANA, C JAYACHANDRAN, M K SINGH, R P SINGH, V P SINGH Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/112830 Thu, 02 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0530 CLINICAL APPRAISAL OF ADMIT PIN FOR MANAGEMENT OF FEMUR FRACTURE IN SMALL ANIMALS. https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/106306 <p>The study included 27 femoral fractures treated using the Admit pinning technique in 25 client-owned dogs presented to the department of veterinary surgery and radiology at TVCC CSKHPKV, Palampur, HP. The fractures types included wedge (10), oblique (9), transverse (4), complex (3) and spiral (1). The status of fracture reduction and fixation was found to be good to excellent. All the dogs had excellent clinical outcome, except three cases which had an axial collapse of fracture after an episode of post-operative trauma, and 2 senile cases which showed delayed union (more than 60 days). Admit pinning, when used in conjuncture with orthopaedic wiring, can resist axial, bending, tension and torsional forces acting on the bone up to the level of no major complications.</p> Mohit Sharma, Adarsh Kumar, Som Prakash Tyagi, Amit Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/106306 Wed, 23 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Conventional ventral midline and right flank approach for ovariohysterectomy in female dogs https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111066 <p>The present study was conducted in 12 intact female dogs presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. Animals<br />were randomly divided into two groups of six each. Group I animals were subjected to conventional ventral midline<br />ovariohysterectomy and in Group II animals, right flank ovariohysterectomy was performed. Clinical efficacy<br />of surgical techniques was evaluated on the basis of clinico-physiological and haemato-biochemical parameters.<br />Surgical duration for performing ovariohysterectomy was comparatively less in right flank approach as compared<br />to ventral midline. Physiological parameters like rectal temperature showed non-significant variations in all the<br />animals. Respiratory rate decreased marginally whereas transitory increase in heart rate was observed for short time. Haematological and biochemical observations revealed marginal changes during the period of study in both the groups. The length of surgical incision, duration of procedure and healing were significantly less in Group II as compared to Group I. However, the operative haemorrhage was comparatively more in right flank ovariohysterectomy. The ease of exteriorization and ligation of uterus and ovaries was easy in Group II (right flank approach) as compared to Group I (ventral midline approach). Wound dehiscence was observed in two dogs of Group I whereas Group II animals showed uneventful recovery. Hence, right flank approach is a good alternative over the conventional midventral approach for performing ovariohysterectomy in female dogs </p> Raju Sharda, Dhaleshwari Sahu, Rukmani Dewangan, Nutan Panchkhande, Shiv Sidar, Devendra Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111066 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Protein profile of serum and urine during early pregnancy in sahiwal cows https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118229 <p>Early pregnancy diagnosis is necessary to maintain reproductive efficiency in animals. To determine biomarker<br />for the early pregnancy diagnosis, total protein was estimated and SDS PAGE was performed on urine and serum in<br />selected 30 Sahiwal cows. Total serum protein concentration was increased in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant Sahiwal cows. A continuously increasing trend of protein was observed in pregnant group after 12 (6.36 ± 0.76 g/dl) to 22 (6.87± 0.39 g/dl) days post-breeding whereas non-specific trend was found in non-pregnant group. In urine, total protein concentration increased significantly in pregnant group as compared to non-pregnant group from 16 to 22 days. An increase in protein concentration from day 0 to 16 followed by decrease till day 22 was observed in both groups. Maximum and minimum protein concentration was observed on day 16 (31.6 ± 0.68 mg/dl) and day 0 (23.32 ± 0.81 mg/dl) respectively, in urine of pregnant group. Upon SDS PAGE analysis of serum, expression of specific proteins of molecular weight between 29 to 43 kDa with over expression of 66 kDa protein were observed in pregnant cows. It was observed that, proteins with molecular weight of 43 kDa and 66 kDa were over-expressed in pregnant cows as compared to non-pregnant cows. These findings suggest that pregnancy specific proteins ranging 29 to 43 kDa of pregnant Sahiwal cows can be used as pregnancy biomarker in near future</p> Mridula Sharma, Chandni Bahuguna, Damini Arya, Dinesh Pandey, A K Verma Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118229 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of dietary supplementation of rice bran crude lecithin on nutrient metabolism, methanogenesis and metabolic profile of crossbred calves https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/124407 <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran crude lecithin (RBCL) on nutrient digestion and balance, performance, methanogenesis and blood profile in crossbred calves. Crossbred calves (18) were randomly divided into three groups; RBCL-0, RBCL-8 and RBCL-12 and fed wheat straw based diet with concentrate mixture containing 0, 8 and 12% RBCL respectively. The dry matter, organic matter and crude protein intake were comparable but tended to decrease with the RBCL levels. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, total carbohydrate and gross energy decreased while crude protein and ether extract digestibility increased with RBCL levels. Fibre fractions (NDF and ADF) digestibility was significantly lower in RBCL supplemented groups<br>in comparison to control group. The body weight gain and average daily gain decreased with increasing level of RBCL. The per cent of nitrogen and calcium retention decreased, while phosphorus retention was significantly lower with inclusion levels of RBCL. Methane production (L/d, L/kgW0.75) was significantly lower in RBCL-12 followed by RBCL-8 as compared to RBCL-0 group. The cholesterol and blood urea concentration was significantly higher in RBCL-12 group as compared to control group. It can be concluded that RBCL is helpful in methane mitigation for cleaner production and can be a cheap source of energy in place of corn for ruminants but at present levels (8 and 12%) the average daily gain depression was seen. Further studies in large number of livestock are warranted to<br>explore the potential of RBCL in the ruminant ration.&nbsp;</p> DHARMESH TEWARI, V B CHATURVEDI, L C CHAUDHARY, A K VERMA, S K CHAUDHARY Copyright (c) 2022 https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/124407 Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of rice gluten meal as a potential alternate feed source for poultry https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/112428 <p>A biological experiment was conducted in a factorial design (3×2×2) involving two substitution levels (20 and<br />40%) of basal diet with rice gluten meal (RGM) with and without enzymes (protease and multi-enzyme) in cockerels<br />following practical diet replacement method. Birds (72) were divided into nine groups containing eight cockerel<br />birds each. The conventional grower ration was provided to the birds for an adaptation period of 10 days followed by feeding of experimental diets for 14 days with final four days as collection period. A metabolic trial lasting for four days was done in which weighed quantity of feed was offered to birds and faeces voided were collected, weighed and dried. Both feed and faeces were analysed for gross energy value to calculate the apparent metabolizable energy for all diets and then apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of test ingredient, i.e. rice gluten meal. The AME value of RGM was 3035 and 3028 kcal/kg at 20 and 40% replacement levels of basal diet with a mean value of 3031 kcal/kg. However, with protease and multi-enzyme supplementation, a numerical increase of 37 and 35 kcal/kg of AME was observed, which was 1.22 and 1.15% more upon supplementation of protease and multi-enzyme, respectively. The proximate analysis revealed that rice gluten meal contains 92.30% dry matter which consists of 50% crude protein, 6.92% ether extract, 9.47% crude fibre, 21.54% nitrogen free extract and 4.37% ash. In vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility (IVPPD) of RGM was 81.50%. The total phosphorus content in the RGM was 0.78%, in which phytate content was 0.43% and non-phytate phosphorous was 0.35%, which is 44.87% of total phosphorous content. Hence, it can be concluded that RGM containing AME of 3031 kcal/kg, 50% crude protein with IVPP of 81.50% can prove to be a possible alternate feed source in the diet of poultry.</p> S ADIL, MANZOOR A WANI, PROMOD K TYAGI2,, A B MANDAL Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/112428 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Amelioration in the quality traits of forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) by application of liquid microbial inoculants https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/114512 <p>Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising dual purpose (fodder and grain) crop. The present investigation<br />was carried to evaluate the effect of liquid microbial inoculants on the quality traits of forage pearl millet. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with a total of 12 treatment combinations of liquid microbial inoculants (Azotobacter sp., Sphingobacterium sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia seminalis) with 100% Recommended Dose of Fertiliser (RDF) and replicated thrice. The application of the liquid microbial inoculants showed improvement in the quality traits over the uninoculated control at both the locations. The treatment T9 (RDF + B. seminalis + S. maltophilia) showed significant increase in the total sugars, ash content, CP (crude protein) and IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility), while significant decrease in the ADF (acid detergent fibre) and NDF (neutral detergent fibre). Further, very strong positive and significant correlation was observed between ADF, NDF and the various antinutrients while they were recorded to be negatively correlated with rest of the quality parameters. Therefore, it can be concluded that liquid microbial inoculants could play a predominant role in improving the forage quality of forage pearl millet</p> PANDOVE GULAB, ARORA VIDHI, OBEROI HARPREET Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/114512 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Seasonal effect on physiological and haematological profiles, scrotal circumference and testicular parameters in indigenous goat bucks under tropical humid island ecosystem https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118435 Andaman local goat (ALG) is meat animal in Andaman and Nicobar islands (ANI) of India. Present study was conducted to measure the seasonal effect on physiological and haematological profiles, scrotal circumference (SC) and testicular weight during rainy and dry summer seasons in ALG. A total of 10 adult intact ALG bucks (body condition score: 3.0-3.5 and classified as good; 3-4 years) were selected from the goat breeding farm, ICAR-CIARI, Port Blair, ANI, India. Results revealed that these experimental profiles differed significantly (p &lt; 0.05) between the seasons. Significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher haematological profiles, SC and testicular weight were observed in rainy season than in dry summer season whereas physiological profiles such as rectal, skin and scrotal temperatures were higher in dry summer than in wet rainy season. The study concluded that the rainy season has significantly greater beneficial effects than dry summer season on reproduction and artificial breeding programmes in semi-intensive management of goat in the present location. P PERUMAL, JAI SUNDER, P C MISHRA, A K DE Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118435 Tue, 22 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Development of innovative scorecard for assessment of welfare and production performance of commercial layer birds reared at different stocking densities in cages https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118162 <p>A methodology to assess the welfare of laying birds maintained in cages was developed using innovative scorecard<br />method without compromising the production and economics in Indian scenario. To develop scorecard, specific key<br />parameters such as production, economics, egg quality, welfare and behaviour were considered. The scores for these key parameters were assigned on the basis of the performance of the commercial laying hens maintained in different stocking densities in cages (387, 484, 548 and 645 cm2/b) for an experimental period of 20 weeks. The range for each parameter was decided and based on it four groups were formed and the treatment with the best performance received the highest weightage, that is how scoring of each treatment was done according to the range they fitted in. The scoring, weightage and guidelines were devised by Delphi technique, by a panel of national experts from the academics and experts working in the poultry industry. At the end of the experimental period, laying birds maintained at stocking density of 548 cm2/b scored the highest weightage with 84 out of total 100; 48 weightage for production and economics, 12 weightage for egg quality and 40 weightage for welfare and behaviour. From all above results, it could be summarized that this innovative scorecard can be used to determine the best performance of laying birds taking welfare into consideration.</p> PINKY ROY, MUKUND M KADAM, JAYDIP J ROKADE, SUBRAT K BHANJA, DARSHANA BHOJRAJ BHAISARE Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/118162 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0530 An algorithm-based approach for identification of most relevant linear traits for selecting high producing Murrah buffaloes https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/119061 <p>Selection of high producing dairy animals is important for dairy profitability and future breeding stock. The<br />farmers have relied on physical characters for identification of milk producing ability in animals. In the present<br />study feature selection algorithm were implemented to identify most relevant traits for prediction of peak milk yield<br />in buffaloes. Based on data recorded from 259 lactating Murrah buffaloes, 14 different body and udder conformation traits, viz. Body Length (BL), Height at Wither (HW), Heart Girth (HG), Body Depth (BD), Paunch Girth (PG), Naval-Udder Distance (NUD), Udder Depth (UD), Rear Udder Height (RUH), Fore Teat Distance (FTD), Rear<br />Teat Distance (RTD), Fore Rear Teat Distance (FRTD), Teat Length (TL), Rump Width (RW) and Rear Udder<br />Width (RUW) were selected. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed that the correlation with peak yield is highest<br />for RUH, followed RUW, lactation number (LN), NUD, FRTD, HG, RW, RTD, UD, TL, PG, BL, BD, HW and<br />FTD. Correlation-based feature selection in ‘WEKA’ software platform suggested that nine parameters have high<br />correlation with peak yield – UD, NUD, RTD, FRTD, TL, RW, RUW, RUH and TL. The Multiple linear regression<br />(MLR) was implemented using the linear regression function available under function classifier in WEKA. Two<br />Regression models (Model 1 and Model 2) were developed using all fifteen input parameters and with subset of 9<br />input parameters suggested in ‘feature selection’. All models were trained and validated with 10-fold cross validation method. The performance of models developed for prediction peak milk yield was evaluated using the metrics correlation coefficient and root mean squared error (RMSE). Comparison of the performance evaluation matrices revealed that the Model 2 requiring lesser number of inputs is good enough in predicting peak yield with 0.8429 correlation coefficient and 2.16 root mean squared error.</p> Sunesh Balhara, Ashok Kumar Balhara, Naresh Dahiya, Rishi Pal Singh, AP Ruhil, Himanshu . Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/119061 Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Spatio-temporal analysis of livestock composition and milk production trends in Himachal Pradesh India: a District-wise analysis https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111764 <p>Himachal Pradesh State encompasses total livestock population of 4.41 million in the year 2017, of which 55 % encompasses of bovine and 40.8 % encompasses of ovine population to total livestock population. District-wise trend analysis was performed from the year 2003 to 2017. The population of indigenous cattle has declined by 20.50 %, the population of crossbred cattle is increased by 20.73 % but the buffalo population was remained almost constant and the population of ovine was declined by 6.41 %.  The milk production in year 2018 accounted for 1460.33 metric tone and milk productivity 1.91, 4.72 and 3.38 kg per day from Indigenous, crossbred and buffalo respectively. The milk production increased by 2.28 %, 7.30 % and 3.85 % from indigenous cattle, crossbred cattle and buffalo respectively. The increased milk production in the state was mainly due to shift from indigenous cattle to crossbred dairy animals across state and increase in Lactating efficiency (LE). The predicted milk production in the state will be 1941 MT by 2030. The lactating efficiency of crossbreed occupied highest among the livestock in the Himachal with 51 per cent. Moreover the shift in growth rate of milk production would be in favor of crossbred rather than indigenous cattle and buffalo due to observed CAGR and LE trends in past. Therefore the favorable conditions including required infrastructure facilities such as subsidies, Higher AI centers, veterinary clinics and market access should be created for promoting crossbred cattle’s in Himachal Pradesh for the benefit and advancement of the dairy sector.</p> Khalandar S, Ravinder Sharma, Rohit Bishist, MUNIANDY SIVARAM, Subhash Sharma, ARNAB ROY, Krishan Lal Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/111764 Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Beyond economic motives: Value of indigenous dairy cattle breed for the livestock keepers in India https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/113190 <p>Indigenous cattle not only provide milk, dung and draught power but are also a crucial part of India’s ecological<br />and cultural heritage. Despite this, they are facing threat of extinction. Absence of information regarding their<br />multiple roles and monetary estimates of the benefits, obstructs the investment for their conservation. Current<br />study attempts to assess the economic value of different benefits of one of the best indigenous cattle breeds of<br />India, Sahiwal. Choice experiment was used for collecting primary data from 168 dairy farmers which was then<br />analyzed using random parameter logit model. ʽCultural valueʼ of Sahiwal occupied the major share (29.93%) of<br />total economic value followed by ʽindirect use value (21.25%)ʼ and ʽexistence value (18.40%)ʼ. Interestingly, share<br />of ʽdirect consumptive use valueʼ was comparatively lower. This indicates that any decision on conservation taken<br />solely on the basis of direct consumptive use value is unlikely to maximize the societal welfare. Development of<br />specific market for milk and milk products of Sahiwal, promotion of the breed as symbol of peace and unity through<br />various cultural and heritage parks, and revival of organic farming can incentivize the Sahiwal rearing farmers which<br />can then supplement the conservation efforts of the government</p> Gunjan Bhandari, B S CHANDEL, R MALHOTRA Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/113190 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Gross energetics in the evaluation of the functioning of Instructional Dairy Farm at Pantnagar, India https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115858 <p>Instructional Dairy Farm at Pantnagar University was studied for evaluating its energetic efficiency, an important<br />measure to evaluate the functioning of a production system. The total organic inputs and outputs of the dairy farm<br />were converted into their respective energy values. Of the total energy flows involved in the dairy farm, 72.6% was<br />the input energy suggesting that most of the energy flow in the dairy farm takes place through feeds. Of the total<br />energy output, dung accounted for 54.83% and milk 44.86%. Only 0.31% of the total output energy was contained<br />in the new born calves. The energy balance of the dairy farm reflected that dung was the most important product,<br />though milk was regarded as most valuable product as it is used for direct human consumption. Gross energetic<br />efficiency of the farm worked out to be 37.7%. This reflects that 62.3% of the total energy was being used for nonproductive purposes (methane production or others).</p> Shalini -, Prachi Kukshal, Vir Singh, Govind Singh Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115858 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Impact of feeding strategies on the growth and nutrient discharge in the polyculture of carps using farm ponds https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/114995 <p>The present study aimed at evaluating appropriate feeding strategies to obtain maximum fish production from farm ponds at low/minimum investment costs was carried out under the Tamil Nadu-Irrigated Agriculture Modernization Project financed by the World Bank. The study was carried out for 180 days at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, in four, equal-sized, farm ponds with two treatments in duplicates by stocking<br />5 species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Cyprinus carpio) in the<br />ratio of 1:1:1:1:2. Treatment 1 (T1) involved the feeding strategy of pelleted feed with 20% CP (crude protein)<br />broadcast twice a day whereas in Treatment 2 (T2), the same feed was provided four times a day as feed balls<br />using feed trays. Among the five species, C. carpio (779±189.01 g) and C. mrigala (670±121.38 g) stocked in<br />T2 attained the maximum weight. Production parameters such as gross production, net production, average daily<br />growth rate were not significant between the treatments, however T2 showed comparatively better results than T1.<br />Survival rate of fishes was recorded significantly higher in T1 (35.54±2.60%) than in T2 (29.6±2.36%). Nutrients<br />such as total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total potassium were significant and highly discharged in T1 than in<br />T2. Experiment revealed that feeding fishes in trays helped to monitor the weight gain and feed intake with reduced<br />nutrient discharge, thereby proper feed management was obtained in T2 when compared to T1</p> Pawan Kumar Sharma, John Stephen Sampath Kumar, D MANIKANDAVELU Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/114995 Thu, 17 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluating and ranking the Vulnerability of the marine ecosystem to multiple threats https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/113397 <span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family: Latha; mso-ansi-language: EN-IN; mso-fareast-language: EN-IN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-IN">Marine ecosystem is threatened by a suite of climatic, anthropogenic, agricultural and aquacultural and fishing stressors. Agriculture and anthropogenic activity are the major drivers of biodiversity loss by extensive use of pesticides and fertilizers, and encounter depleted soils and erosion due to unsustainable farming practices. This study provides an assessment of the various potential threats that vulnerability of marine biodiversity in the Gulf of Mannar. </span><span style="font-size: 11pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;" lang="EN-IN">In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was distributed to more than 100 resource users from four districts of GOMBRT</span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; mso-bidi-font-family: Latha; mso-ansi-language: EN-IN; mso-fareast-language: EN-IN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-IN"> in binary format. The data was then explored using multivariate logit regression method followed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The evaluation showed that all the determinants of various threats significantly affect the vulnerability of marine ecosystem. Among the studied factors, change in sea temperature, increase in fishing efforts, advanced farming practices, occurrence of endangered species, and tourism were greatest threats (high log odds ratio), identified as most important determinants affecting marine ecosystem.</span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family: Latha; mso-ansi-language: EN-IN; mso-fareast-language: EN-IN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-IN">Marine ecosystem is threatened by a suite of climatic, anthropogenic, agricultural and aquacultural and fishing stressors. Agriculture and anthropogenic activity are the major drivers of biodiversity loss by extensive use of pesticides and fertilizers, and encounter depleted soils and erosion due to unsustainable farming practices. This study provides an assessment of the various potential threats that vulnerability of marine biodiversity in the Gulf of Mannar. </span><span style="font-size: 11pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif;" lang="EN-IN">In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was distributed to more than 100 resource users from four districts of GOMBRT</span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; mso-fareast-font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; mso-bidi-font-family: Latha; mso-ansi-language: EN-IN; mso-fareast-language: EN-IN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-IN"> in binary format. The data was then explored using multivariate logit regression method followed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The evaluation showed that all the determinants of various threats significantly affect the vulnerability of marine ecosystem. Among the studied factors, change in sea temperature, increase in fishing efforts, advanced farming practices, occurrence of endangered species, and tourism were greatest threats (high log odds ratio), identified as most important determinants affecting marine ecosystem.</span> GREEN SEA K., RAJAKUMAR M., UMAMAHESWARI T., SUJATH KUMAR N. V., JAWAHAR P., NARESH RAJ KEER, RAJPAL YADAV, AJAY Kumar yadav Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/113397 Thu, 03 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Stem Cell Therapeutics in veterinary medicine in India https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115586 <p>Stem cell, a wonder cell, acts as a basic unit for an individual development in early prenatal life, and<br />repairs and regenerates the tissue and/ organ in post-natal life. The stem cell research although conducted extensively is still in its infancy for standardized therapeutics. Among various stem cells types, multi-potential mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is mainly evaluated for therapeutic applications. These cells have been isolated from almost all the body organs/ tissues and fetal membranes and are culture expanded for higher concentrations. Like human, MSCs harvested from veterinary species are characterized on the basis of International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). Extensive literature on their therapeutic applications in musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal systems evidences their potential utility under clinical settings. Currently, limited understanding in their hysiological mechanisms and availability of limited non-uniform in vivo studies restrict their definitive therapeutic applications. Lack of regulatory set up in India makes MSCs research in veterinary medicine a more complicated field. This review details the current status and possible ways to improve MSCs therapeutic applications in veterinary medicine, in general and in Indian system, in particular. </p> Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Fajar Farooq, Qumaila Sakeena, Ejaz Rasool Dar, Sharun Khan, Amarpal Amarpal, Jalal ud Din Parrah, Dil Mohammad Makhdoomi, Kuldeep Dhama, Gutulla Taru Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJAnS/article/view/115586 Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0530