Indian Journal of Extension Education <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The <strong><em>Indian Journal of Extension Education</em></strong> (ISSN 0537-1996, eISSN 2454-552X) is the peer-reviewed, official publication of the Indian Society of Extension Education, (ISEE) </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">New Delhi </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">publishing original research papers/ research notes/ research tools in the field of extension education and allied fields since 1965</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">. </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The Indian Society of Extension Education, Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-Indian Agricultural research Institute, New Delhi is a registered professional society under the societies registration act XXI of 1860 (Punjab Amendment) Act 1957 as extended to Union Territory of Delhi under registration number S-2504 dated 22.06.1964</span><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">. </strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The <em><strong>Indian Journal of Extension Education</strong></em> is <strong><em>UGC CARE listed</em></strong> (since January 2023), published quarterly, indexed in CABI, Index Copernicus International Journal Masterlist, Google Scholar, Scilit, Semantic Scholar, AGRIS, BASE, WorldCat, EBSCO, Crossref etc.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">NAAS rating : 5.95 ( Since January 2020) </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">NAAS journal ID: I061 ( Effective from January 2022)</span></p> ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute en-US Indian Journal of Extension Education 0537-1996 <p>The manuscripts once accepted and published in the Indian Journal of Extension Education will automatically become the property of the Indian Society of Extension Education, New Delhi. The Chief Editor on behalf of the Indian Journal of Extension Education holds the copyright.</p> Editorial <p>World Science Day for Peace and Development focused attention on the understanding how societies are contending with the challenges and threats of a world in which the frequency and severity of shocks and conflicts continues to grow. The studies through robust methodologies can trace out the impacts of various shocks and crises afflicting the world today, as well as trace out policy solutions that can address them and improve the lives of the rural poor, also, can expand the body of scientific evidence to promote peace and development. New skills are needed to deal with challenges posed by COVID-19 pandemic which forced innovation within extension organizations. Although digital literacy is critical but individuals and organizations will need skills for partnering and building alliances, as well as for coordination and joint monitoring and evaluation as such development actors need to ensure system-level capacities. It’s my privilege to present the current issue (January- March, 2023) containing 38 manuscripts including 4 research tools, 9 research notes and 25 full length research papers from cross sectional authors and content. The measuring tools included; attitude scale towards conservation agricultural practices; sustainability of rice-wheat cropping system; social cohesiveness and one knowledge test on Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana. The manuscripts on constraint analysis of ericulture, turmeric production, agroforestry practices and farm pond; knowledge analysis of IPM and various dimensions of Krishi Bhagya Yojane; communication related studies like; social Network analysis for technology adoption, effectiveness of educational module, information networks analysis, content analysis of newspaper, OTT platforms study, MobileApp utilization pattern and credibility analysis of information sources; adoption studies on artificial insemination, climate resilient agricultural technologies, sustainable livelihood security of integrated farming systems, soil health card scheme , livelihood security of households, intercropping and technological gap between tribal pineapple growers; economic analysis of lac production, trade between India and European Union, potato , composition of agricultural household’s income, mushroom enterprises and e-NAM facilities and services and some miscellaneous studies on water user associations, research productivity, readiness for organic farming etc. were included. The data is regularly being fed to international indexing agencies leading to indexing of Indian Journal of Extension Education at Index Copernicus International Journal Master list, CAB International; ICI; BASE; Googkle scholar; Scilit; Semantic Scholar; WorldCat; Science gate; Agricultural Science and Technology Information data base of FAO and Crossref. From June 2023, as per changed policy, all the journals indexed in Web of Science (WoS) will get Impact Factors whereas earlier only the core collection of Science Citation Index was getting the Impact Factor (JIF) published in Journal Citation Report (JCR). As such it has become more looked-for to get the journal indexed in WoS for which we all have to work harder. I extend my sincere thanks to all the authors for making valuable contributions. I also extend sincere thanks to all the expert members in the editorial board for their painstaking efforts. The reviewing contributions by Dr. Himanshu K. De, Dr. Rajeev Bairathi, Dr. Souvik Ghosh, Dr. Mahesh Chandra, Dr. P.K. Tiwari, Dr. L. K. Tyagi, Dr. Raju, Dr. N. V. Kumbhare and many other are sincerely acknowledged. I extend my sincere thanks to all the authors for making valuable contributions. The support extended by Executive Council is duly acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to the President, ISEE; Dr. U.S. Gautam, Secretary ISEE; Dr. Rashmi Singh, Treasurer, ISEE; Dr. B. K. Singh and Joint Secretary, ISEE; Dr. J. S. Malik for providing insightful thoughts and guidance in bringing out this issue. Dr. Bhanu P. Mishra, Vice President (Central Zone) deserves special thanks for making committed efforts at all stages of ISEE matters.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;(Manjeet Singh Nain)</p> Chief Editor Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 00 00 Social Network to Accelerate Agricultural Technology Adoption: Evidence from Hambanthota District, Sri Lanka <p>Information links among the actors of social networks have a vital effect on the diffusion of knowledge from person to person and subsequently accelerate the adoption process. Poor information links led to the inefficiency of technology transfer and adoption by rural farmers in developing countries. Concerning the importance of information links of a social network on technology adoption, the study intended to explore the social network impact on the agricultural knowledge transferring process as an alternative extension approach over traditional extension practices. The 72 extension officers working in the Hambantota district were purposefully selected to collect primary data on information and knowledge network. Extension officers were identified as the key node of the information network. The role of contact farmers was prominent in paddy farming in Sri Lanka as they provided the interconnection between extension officers and farmers by sharing information. The study found that all the actors in the network similarly influenced each other and were well-connected. Further, the contact farmers’ approach can be successfully applied as a cost-effective extension tool in developing countries while progressing technology adoption among farmers.</p> K. N. Nadeeshani Silva Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 1 6 Growth and Stability Analysis of Lac Production in Madhya Pradesh, India <p>Lac is produced in different districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP), covering ten out of its eleven agro-climatic zones. This paper investigated the prospects of stakeholders from an assessment of the potential and performance of the state’s primary lac producing districts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Based on secondary data of lac production during Plans XI (2007-08 to 2011-12) and XII (2012-13 to 2016-17), data was evaluated crop by crop and district by district, and the trend was examined. Econometric measures, such as mean production, growth rate, and percent changes in mean value, were analyzed. Madhya Pradesh state that has contributed 13.66 per cent share during the XI plan has come down to 12.91 per cent during the XII plan. The state which recorded a negative growth rate to the extent of 30.15 per cent during the XI plan, reduced to 3.20 per cent during the XII plan. Chhindwara, Dindori and Mandla are the districts, which recorded decline in growth during the XI plan but witnessed positive during the XII plan period. Data on crop-specific lac production were evaluated to determine less-performing crops during these periods in the state. The state may initiate proper strategies to cope up with issues and problems of less performing districts.</p> Alok Kumar Anil Kumar Jaiswal B. Anand Babu Brijesh K. Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 7 12 Prevailing Status of Agricultural Trade between India and European Union <p>This study analysed the current scenario of India-EU trade, composition of trade, growth and instability of agricultural commodities during the period 1997-98 to 2021-22. India’s agricultural export to the EU was US $ 4.7 billion and imported US $ 1.3 billion from the EU in 2021-22. Netherlands, Italy and Germany were three most important EU members for Indian agricultural trade. India mainly exported fishes and marine products, coffee, tea, meat, spices and cotton to the EU. Vegetable oil, raw hides, skin and leather and animal fodder were imported by India from the EU. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) and Cuddy-Della Valle Index (CDVI) for instability indicated that the total trade between India and the EU have increased consistently with annual growth rate of 6.59 per cent and instability value of 13.97. This provides impetus to policymakers to establish close trade links with counterparts of EU.</p> Sharath Yeligar Shiv Kumar P. Venkatesh I. Kingsly Manjeet Singh Nain R. K. Paul U. Madhurima Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 13 18 Cropping Scenario in Water User Associations (WUAs) Managed Groundwater Irrigation System’s Command Area in West Bengal <p>The groundwater irrigation, catering to more than 60 per cent of total irrigation in India, has significantly contributed to food grains production. Participatory irrigation management programme has been implemented transferring irrigation management to WUAs. Present study was undertaken during 2019 to explore cropping scenario in groundwater irrigation command under jurisdiction of WUAs in Burdwan district of West Bengal covering a random sample of 120 farmers. It is revealed that paddy was the major crop in both kharif and summer season. During rabi season, potato was grown in larger areas followed by mustard. While all 120 farmers had grown paddy as single crop in kharif season, 100 and 82 farmers have cultivated potato and mustard in rabi season and 75 farmers have grown boro rice during summer season. Cultivated land utilization index value was more than 50 per cent. Crop diversity index (CDI) value of 36 per cent showed lack of crop diversification in groundwater irrigation command areas that warrants need of bringing more areas under different crops. Multiple cropping index of 176 per cent showed a higher cropping intensity in groundwater irrigation command. Thus, Extension advisory services need to promote crop diversification in groundwater irrigation command areas through proper crop planning and capacity building of WUAs.</p> Subhajit Mukherjee Souvik Ghosh Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 19 23 Extent of Adoption of Intercropping Practices Among Farmers of Haryana <p>Intercropping is a variant of multiple cropping practices that includes the cultivation of two or more crops in definite close proximity. The current study was led in dry and wet agroclimatic zones of Haryana in 2022 with an objective to assess the adoption of intercropping practices among farmers of Haryana. The primary data were collected personally from 120 respondents through a well-structured interview schedule. Findings revealed that nearly three-fifths of the respondents had medium level of adoption of intercropping practices and the farmers were adopting intercropping mainly in vegetables. Highly significant association was found between education, mass media exposure, inheritance with level of adoption of the intercropping system. A significant association was found between age, caste, annual income, land holding, extension contacts with level of adoption. The main reasons for adoption of intercropping were higher income and improved socio-economic status. The paper recommends on field training/demonstration for farmers who were adopting intercropping so that adoption of intercropping can be made efficient and from this more number of farmers will be encouraged to adopt intercropping</p> Sahil Boora Bas Kaur Rashmi Tyagi Dalip Kumar Bishnoi Manisha Rohit Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 24 27 Effectiveness of an Educational Module on Diet and Nutrition: A Farm Women Perspective from Aspirational Districts <p>Farm women, although they play a significant role in food and nutritional security of their households, are very much deprived of knowledge and information on food and nutrition. Only few studies have focused on nutrition of farm women and no studies have been found on farm women in aspirational districts in particular. Hence, in the present crosssectional study conducted in 2021, an educational module (folder) entitled “Diet and Nutrition of Farm Women: A Short Guide” was developed in Tamil, Malayalam and English. The module’s contents were subjected to relevancy test by 30 experts. The module’s effectiveness as perceived by the respondents on six characteristics were measured using a 19 item scale developed based on Guidelines for Pretesting and Evaluating Communication Materials given by Ministry of Health, Zambia. Responses were taken from 60 farm women to assess their perception on effectiveness of the module. Nearly 70 per cent of the farm women perceived that the educational module was useful. Majority perceived that the contents were interesting and they will follow the suggestions in the module. Hence, perceived effectiveness of the developed educational module was high and it can be used to impart behavioural change among farm women under similar circumstances.</p> Ditty Maria Dominic H. R. Meena D. Alagu Niranjan Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 28 31 Assessing Research Productivity of Agricultural Scientists of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University <p>Productivity is the quintessential indicator of efficiency in any system. Research productivity is the work outcome of the scientists in the area of research in a given period of time. The present study was conducted to assess the level of research productivity among the agricultural scientists of PJTSAU in the year 2021. A sample of 120 agricultural scientists including Scientists, Senior Scientists and Principal Scientists with a minimum of 3 years of experience in research after 2014, when the university PJTSAU was formed due to bifurcation of the state, were selected for the study purposively. An index to compute research productivity was developed with six indicators- Publication behaviour, Research activities undertaken, Research guidance and Mentoring, Awards and Recognition, Technologies/Knowledge generated and Intellectual Property Rights generated and was standardized by testing its validity and reliability. The majority of agricultural scientists had medium research productivity (47.5%) followed by very low (15.83%), low (15.00%), high (15.00%) and very high (6.67%). The lowest research productivity index score was 0.11 while highest was 0.88 which indicates that there is a scope to increase productivity among the agricultural scientists with low research productivity.</p> Apoorva Veldandi Madhu Babu K. V. Ravinder Naik G. E. CH Vidya Sagar Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 32.36 32.36 Growth Performance of Potato in India vis-à-vis North East India <p>There is a huge potato yield gap between India and developed countries and between regions within the country. This study examines the trends in potato area, yield, and production in India and North East India from 2000-01 to 2019-20, as well as the causes of the yield gap and the role of improved varieties in bridging it. Over two decades, all parameters showed positive trends in India and North East India, but growth rates were higher at the national level than in North East India. The growth in production was mainly attributed to an increase in area. During TE 2019-20, India produced 50.18 million tons (23.5 t/ha) of potatoes from 2.14 million ha, while North East India produced only 2.78 per cent (10 t/ha) from 8.15 per cent of national potato area. Low potato yield in the region is mainly caused by the lack of knowledge about and low adoption of quality seeds and recent varieties and other scientific potato technologies. State governments, research institutes, private seed companies, public policy bodies, and other potato stakeholders should facilitate the diffusion and adoption of improved varieties and other improved potato technologies to boost potato yield and farmers’ income.</p> Pynbianglang Kharumnuid L. Devarani Ram Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 37 41 Farmers’ Readiness for Organic Farming: A Study of Aligarh District in Uttar Pradesh <p>The study was conducted in the purposively selected Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the readiness of farmers for organic farming. The readiness of the farmers for organic farming was perceived in terms of conducive agricultural profile, a favorable attitude, sufficient knowledge and availability of required manpower and inputs for organic farming. The sample size of the study was 240 farmers spreading in twelve villages over six blocks of the district. Animal husbandry with agriculture, growing of pulses, millets, sesbania (for green manuring) and having neem trees (Azadirachta indica) were found already existing farm practices building supporting ground for the organic farming. Overall farmers were having favourable attitude towards organic farming. But, attitude towards the implementation aspect of organic farming was not as strong as towards impact on the environment and soil health, and economic benefits of organic farming. Farmers knew cultural practices related aspects of organic farming but lacking in knowledge regarding trap crops and bio-agents. There is a need to provide institutional support in creating awareness in technological advancement of organic farming, diversification of cereal based cropping system with the inclusion of leguminous crops and in increasing accessibility of off-farm organic inputs.</p> Netrapal Malik Manoj Kumar Singh Ashok Kumar Manjeet Singh Nain Priya Vashishtha Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 42 45 Bottlenecks in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices in Jammu Division of Jammu and Kashmir <p>Agro-forestry is an excellent medium of land utilization for obtaining the maximum output. In both irrigated and rain-fed environments, agroforestry is practised to produce food, fuel, fodder, timber, fertiliser, and fibre. It also contributes to nutritional and ecological security, supports livelihoods, reduces poverty, and encourages resilient and productive cropping and farming environments. Adoption of different practices of agroforestry systems is very much crucial for sustaining the livelihood of resource poor farmers particularly in rainfed area. The present study was carried out in 10 blocks of Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir in 2018 to identify different bottlenecks encountered by farmers in adoption of different agro-forestry practices. Multistage random sampling method was used for selection of 160 respondents from study area. The results show lack of awareness, lack of structural market and lack of interactions with respective governmental organizations were the major bottlenecks in adoption of different agroforestry practices for sustainable livelihood generation.</p> S. K. Gupta Khare V. Pushkar P. S. Slathia Rakesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 46 49 Food and Nutrition Consumption of Rural Households in Northern India <p>Adequate and proper nutritious food is essential for essential for healthy lifestyle and good human health. Thus, promoting nutritious food among rural households is crucial for food and nutritional security. The study on ‘Nutrition Education for Enhancing Nutritional Security and Gender Empowerment’ was carried out for rural households in selected villages of Muzaffarnagar district in western Uttar Pradesh from 2014-15 to 2019-20. The data collected from 120 respondents revealed that more than 60 per cent school children (both boys and girls) and farm women were observed healthy with 61.67 per cent and 63.33 per cent, respectively with BMI score of 18.50 to 24.99 kg/m2. The food consumption pattern of rural households revealed that cent per cent children had a food consumption pattern of three meals per day followed by male adult (80.00%), pregnant women (63.33%). The study also revealed that more than half of the school children (58.34%) and farm women (65.00%) were found in medium level of awareness about food nutrition. The prevalence of underweight and obesity among school children and farm women was observed low.</p> N. V. Kumbhare V. Sangeetha R. N. Padaria Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 50 53 Farm Ponds in Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka: Impacts and Constraints <p>This study ascertained the impact of water harvesting structures-farm ponds constructed under Krishi Bhagya Scheme in Northern dry zone of Karnataka during 2019 to 2021. Farmers with and without farm ponds were selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with a total sample size of 320 farmers for data collection. The impact of farm ponds on cropping pattern and crop productivity was visible due to supplementary life saving irrigation. The change in income due to farm ponds ranged from 13 to 97 per cent and net returns realized by farmers with ponds was higher than the farmers without ponds due to increased crop yield. The employment generation per farm increased for beneficiary farmers as compared to control. However, problems of sedimentation, poor design of farm ponds (absence of silt trap and proper inlet and outlet), poor site selection and lack of awareness were the major constraints experienced by farmers for long term sustainability of farm ponds.</p> Ravi Dupdal S. L. Patil B. S. Naik M. N. Ramesha K. N. Ravi Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 54 58 Status and Changes in Composition of Agricultural Household’s Income in India <p>The study used the NSSO’s Situation Assessment Survey from 2012-13 and 2018-19 to determine the current status and changes in the composition of agricultural household income. During the agricultural years 2012-13 and 2018-19, an agricultural household’s total nominal farm income increased at an annual rate of 9.61 per cent, while real income increased at a rate of 3.42 per cent. Assuming the projected growth trends in nominal and real income continue, the nominal income of agricultural households will take 7.5 years to double at All India levels, while the real income will take 21 years. The income composition of an agricultural household changed throughout the same period. The average annual percentage change in income from wages and salaries (10.37%) and from animal sources (6.14%) grew positively throughout the period, whereas crop (-1.25%) and non-farm business (-0.94%) grew negatively. 12 per cent increase in the share of wages and salaries in overall income was discovered and a corresponding reduction in crop income. In the agricultural year 2018-19, Rajasthan had the largest diversity in income sources (SID=0.43), and Andhra Pradesh had the lowest (SID=0.25), while All India had (SID=0.35). The result indicates that agricultural households are shifting their dependency for livelihood from crop income towards wages and salaries.</p> Utkarsh Tiwari Alka Singh Pramod Kumar P. Venkatesh Rashmi Singh Amrender Kumar Jaiprakash Bisen H. V. Harish Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 59 64 Adoption of Artificial Insemination Among Large Ruminants in Arid Western Rajasthan, India <p>This study estimated the adoption rate of Artificial Insemination (AI) among large ruminants based on primary data collected from 200 farm households in Jodhpur district from 2019 to 2022. The composition of cow and buffalo population was 74 and 26 per cent in the study villages. 56 per cent farmers in cows and 13 per cent in buffaloes adopted AI with a success rate of conception after first insemination of 31 per cent in cows and 22 per cent in buffaloes. AI cost ranged from Rs. 400-800/- and Rs. 500-1000/- per insemination in cows and buffaloes respectively. Breeding cost through pedigreed bull was comparable to insemination in both cows and buffaloes. Subsistence mode of livestock rearing and natural grazing on community pastures were the main reasons for low adoption rate of AI. Farmers ensured that their buffaloes were sired only through pedigreed bulls. Since, pedigreed bulls were not available in all villages, their availability in villages or at the selected farmers on payment basis is required for genetic improvement of cattle.&nbsp;</p> Dipika Hajong A. K. Patel A. K. Patel B. L. Manjunatha S. Kachhawaha Pratibha Tewari Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 65 69 Situation Analysis of Small-scale Mushroom Enterprises of Meghalaya in the Wake of COVID-19 Pandemic <p>As a remunerative agri-business, mushroom farming is growing as an alternative source of income for the rural population. Meghalaya has climate highly suitable for mushroom cultivation and thus the Government of Meghalaya has taken up various interventions to popularize mushroom cultivation. The study was taken up in the East Khasi Hills and Ri-Bhoi districts of the state during 2020-2022 to analyse the situation of the mushroom enterprises in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which impacted people and businesses all throughout the world. SWOT analysis and TOWS matrix were used for analysing the internal and external factors. The perceptions of 60 growers towards selected SWOT items were recorded. Important strength item was “climatic condition is congenial for mushroom” and the weaknesses was “restriction as well complexity in the mobility of the goods and persons”. For opportunities, “generates employment opportunities” had the highest score and for threats, “Unavailability of spawn” had the highest score. The study suggests establishment of mushroom based FPOs for ease of access to inputs and market for small-scale producers, the development of local spawn entrepreneurs for the accessible and timely supply of quality spawn and the creation of ICT based platform for reaching out to various backward and forward actors.</p> Th Onchoila Maring Loukham Devarani R. J. Singh N. A. Singh L. Hemochandra Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 70 74 Migration Attributes in Adaptation and Its Correlates during Pandemic: The Socio-ecological Interpretation <p>Migration is an integral part of social ecology as well as economic development. The four streams of internal migration are rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-rural, and urban-urban. Rural-urban migration has its inherent linkages to agricultural development. In recent years, COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the process of migration by humongous scale and magnitude. The study was conducted to examine the nature and extent of rural-urban migration, the role, performance and adaptation during migration of family vis-a-vis individual, the inter and intra-level interaction between two sets of variables, and lastly to generate a micro sociological policy based on the empirical research during 2020-21. Three urban and three rural areas of Birbhum district were selected purposively, depending on the prevalence of agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Three hundred respondents were identified through the snowball sampling method. The results show that variables like age, education, family size, income, expenditure, employment and management factor have the highest impact on migration. Also, both the pull and push factors are the main driver of migration.</p> Debdyuti Roy Sankar Kumar Acharya Monirul Haque Arnab Banerjee Amrita Kumar Sarkar Tapan Kumar Mandal Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 75 80 Assessing the Adoption of Climate Resilient Agricultural Technologies by the Farmers of Telangana State <p>In agriculture sector, the effect of climate change seems to have become inevitable during the last few decades. Hence, the technologies for climate-resilient agriculture (CRA) are probably the best adaptation solutions currently available to improve the resilience of agriculture. The study to access the extent of adoption of CRA technologies by the farmers in the National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project implemented villages of Suryapet and Khammam districts in Telangana state was conducted during 2021-22. Total 200 farmers from these two districts were selected randomly to evaluate the adoption status of recommended CRA technologies and its association with the respondents’ profile characteristics. The respondents had adopted CRA technologies at medium to high levels with the majority of beneficiaries adopting technologies like deep ploughing, in-situ moisture conservation technologies in cotton and red gram, crop diversification from paddy to jowar and vegetables as a contingent crop, improved variety of paddy Siddhi WGL-44 and improved backyard poultry breeds. The profile characteristics viz., education, annual income, land holding, individual and mass media exposure, economic motivation, risk-taking ability, and innovative proneness had a positive and significant association with the extent of adoption of CRA technologies.&nbsp;</p> Boda Mahesh Naik A. K. Singh Himadri Roy Saikat Maji Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 81 85 Do Information Networks Enhance Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices? Evidence from Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India <p>The study aimed to analyze the perception of farmers towards sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) and identify social networks using primary data collected randomly from 300 farmers of the northern dry zone of Karnataka. Five-point Likert scale was used to analyze the perception of farmers towards SAPs and open-source software named “Gephi” was used to map farmers’ social networks. Farmers’ perceptions towards SAPs were poor and only one in eight respondents reported high perception towards SAPs. Comparatively, large farmers had better perception towards SAPs and had better access to capacity building (extension contact and farm events) than the small and marginal farmers. Social capital (neighbor, progressive and relative farmers) had also played an important role in spreading SAPs related information among the farmers. However, local input dealers failed to be key informants and hardly disseminated information regarding SAPs. Government extension officials were the dominant informants on SAPs. Given the low level of adoption of SAPs in the study area, exploiting the potential of ICTs, training local input dealers, capacity building of the farmers and effective utilization of social capital are the suggested policy options to enhance the adoption of SAPs.</p> S. Niranjan D. R. Singh N. R. Kumar G.K.Jha P. Venkatesh M. S. Nain B Krishnakumare Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 86 91 A Study on Consequences and Growth of OTT Platform using Factor Analysis and ANOVA <p>In the face of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the over-the-top service of new generic media continues its unbelievable flight. The availability of content, easy access to various shows, ease of use, and continuity of shows require users to subscribe to OTT video streaming. This study aims to pinpoint the factors that show the consequences &amp; growth of OTT over the traditional medium and the effect of the consequences of the OTT platform on gender &amp; occupation. With a sample size of 200, the data was gathered from primary sources utilizing convenience sampling and a semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using factor analysis &amp; ANOVA. Two main factors used in were Consequences of OTT (Factor 1) and OTT growth over traditional medium (Factor 2). The variations in factors 1 &amp; 2 were 42.59 &amp; 15.49 respectively. As per factor analysis, factor 1 was the most important and the Cronbach alpha values of 0.852 and 0.807 respectively, reveal the reliability of the two factors. Also, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows that gender &amp; occupation have a significant effect on the consequences of the OTT platform. The online consumption of content was also found to have several negative effects on the life style of the respondents</p> EktaYadav Megha Goyal Suman Ghalawat Joginder Singh Malik Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 92 95 Utilization of e-NAM Facilities and Services by Farmers in Telangana <p>The study was undertaken to know the e-NAM usage pattern of farmers in Hyderabad and Warangal Districts of Telangana, India, in 2019-20. The utilization index was constructed based on the responses received from the respondents for statements related to utilization patterns. The Pearson correlation method was used to measure the relationship between the profile characters of the respondents and the utilization index. More than 50 per cent of the farmers in the study were imitators and more than 60 per cent of respondents belonged to the medium category in information seeking behavior. e-NAM facilities viz., checking price (70%), mobile number linkage for the information (53%) were the most used facilities by the respondents. Education and Awareness factors significantly contributed to the utilization pattern of e-NAM resources.&nbsp;</p> Malliboina Mahesh Yadav A. Sakeer Husain Lokesh Srinivasaiah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 96 100 Sustainable Livelihood Security of Integrated Farming Systems Practicing Farmers through Different Enterprise Combinations in Andhra Pradesh <p>The&nbsp; study described the sustainable livelihood security of integrated farming systems practicing 189 farmers through different enterprise combinations in Chittoor district of Rayalaseema region, East Godavari from Coastal region and Srikakulam from North Coastal region during 2020-21. Indicators under each dimension of sustainable livelihood security were selected by item analysis. Out of 52 indicators, finally 25 indicators of sustainable livelihood security were selected based on relevancy weightage and mean relevancy score. The results revealed that majority of the farmers practicing Integrated Farming System had permanent asset creation (54.50%), food and nutritional security (53.97%), economic security (53.97%), input recycling (52.38%), occupational security (51.32%), financial security (50.79%), environmental security (47.09%) and social security (42.33%). The overall sustainable livelihood security index was nearly half (47.62%) among the farmers in medium category. Most of the farmers were having medium and high sustainable livelihood security due to integration of more enterprises which enabled optimum utilization of available resources through recycling resulting in more income, employment, and more food security throughout the year.&nbsp;</p> T. Sri Chandana P. L. R. J. Praveena T. Lakshmi D. Subramanyam B. Ravindra Reddy Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 101 106 Perceived Constraints of Organic Turmeric Farmers in Kandhamal District of Odisha <p>The study was conducted in 2019 to know the constraints perceived by the organic turmeric farmers in the Kandhamal District of Odisha. The study considered 7 major dimensions under which 30 constraints were considered; data was suitably analyzed with the help of principal component analysis. The result of these 7 dimensions of constraints is further divided into several components based on Eigenvalue. Under general constraints, 4 components identified with Eigen Value 3.055, 1.871, 1.278, 1.058 sequentially leveled as scarce organic manure, inaccessible microbiological tools, poor resource quality, and water scarcity. In technological constraints, two components with Eigenvalue 2.498 and 1.518 leveled as costly input with poor knowledge support and biotic stress, respectively. In Extension activity constraints, two components were identified: inadequate Training and improper Training, with Eigenvalues 1.115 &amp; 1.032, respectively. In the case of the remaining 4 main areas, organic market constraints, economic constraints, social constraints, and other constraints, only one component was identified with Eigenvalue 4.623, 1.780, 1.506, 1.318, respectively.</p> Biswajit Sahoo Anindita Saha Digvijay Singh Dhakre Subha Laxmi Sahoo Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 107 111 Socio-economic Determinants Influence on NiliRavi Buffalo Farmers Choice of Milk Marketing Channels in Punjab Gururaj Makarabbi F. C. Tuteja Navneet Saxena Ana Raj J. Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 112 116 Content Analysis and Coverage of News on Pandemic COVID-19 in Elected Newspapers <p>Newspapers have a significant impact on quality of life. Individuals are heavily influenced by the newspaper and it aids in promoting social awareness among them. This study was conducted to examine the content during pandemic COVID-19 in three selected newspapers viz., The Hindu, The Tribune and Punjab Kesari. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the selected newspaper over the chosen time period was conducted during 2022. The majority of topics were covered in news format in all the newspapers. Newspaper correspondents were the primary information source in all the newspapers. The Hindu took up the most space and items. In all of the newspapers, the majority of the items and space were covered during PHASE-II.</p> Mansi Sharma Ella Rani Vandana Verma J. S. Malik Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 117 121 Impact of Soil Health Card Scheme on Soil Fertility and Crop Production Among the Adopted Farmers <p>The study was conducted in Bareilly district of western UP regarding adoption of recommendation of soil health card scheme and its impact on productivity and economics of different crops i.e. wheat, paddy and sugarcane. It was found that only 40 per cent farmers owned soil health card. However, due to adoption of SHT based fertilizer recommendations there was a significant increase in crop yields of wheat (30.80%), paddy (29.80%) and sugarcane (32.90%). In addition, the adoption of SHT based fertilizer recommendation had a significant reduction in production cost by Rs. 2130, 2164 and 3122/- per acre of wheat, paddy and sugarcane crops, respectively. Also, the net increase in farmer’s income was realised from one acre of wheat, paddy and sugarcane was about Rs. 11197, 12058 &amp; 29187, respectively. Thus, the application of SHT under field condition has reduced the production cost and increased the farmers’ income.</p> B. P. Singh Vijay Kumar Mahesh Chander M. B. Reddy Shruti Madan Singh R. S. Suman Vanee Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 122 126 Constraints in the Adoption of Farm Pond in Drought Regions of Maharashtra <p>During 2021-22, the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the farm pond on-demand initiative in Maharashtra’s Vidarbha and Marathwada regions were analysed and identified the constraints associated with farm pond adoption. Through focus group discussions, observations, and semi-structured interviews with 160 beneficiaries and 160 nonbeneficiaries of the farm pond programme, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. The adoption and discontinuation of agricultural ponds were analysed using the rank-based quotient (RBQ) approach to find barriers and contributing variables. After consulting with subject matter experts, reading pertinent literature, and having a conversation with respondents, a list of constraints divided into four major categories-technical, economic, ecological, and personal constraints-and the perceived significant reason for the discontinuation of the farm pond was noted. Results revealed that the economic constraints were considered the most serious ones, with a mean RBQ value of 88.85. Followed by technological (78.25), ecological (61.82) and personal constraints (58.18). Draining the bore well or well to store water in the farm pond was considered as the most serious perceived reason to discontinue the farm pond with an RBQ value of 44.94, followed by a less productive period of farm pond reported by the respondents with RBQ values 40.38.</p> Gireesh Shivakumarappa N. V. Kumbhare, R. N. Padaria, R. R. Burman, Pramod Kumar, Arpan Bhoumik, Shiv Prasad Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 142 145 Analysis of Livelihood Security of Households: A Case Study from Rural Areas of Bundelkhand <p>Livelihood security is defined as securing the possession or access to incomegenerating assets and activities, including reserves and assets, to the offsets. The study was conducted from 2018-19 to 2020-21 in Bundelkhand, which includes Uttar Pradesh (7 districts) and Madhya Pradesh (6 districts). Based on the broad literature assessment and discussion with experts, indicators were developed to measure dairy farmer livelihoods. Information was collected by personal interviews using a structured interview schedule. The survey found that the majority of smallholder farmers earn a low to moderate income. The average livelihood security index for marginal farmers was 0.55, and the average livelihood security index for middle-class farmers was 0.57. Education, land ownership, annual income, milk sales, and extension contacts had highly significant positive relationships with livelihood security.</p> Pawan Kumar Gautam Sujeet Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 146 149 Utilization Pattern of Mobile Apps Among Farmers for Agricultural Production <p>The study was undertaken in the four specifically chosen districts of Haryana state in diverse geographical locations and had different crop patterns. In a number of districts, the main cropping pattern was rice and wheat, combined with pearl millet and mustard. This study aimed to determine how agricultural mobile apps were used by farmers for agricultural productivity by using a utility index. In accordance with a well-planned and pre-tested interview schedule, the data were gathered from 240 respondents, including 15 respondents each from randomly chosen 16 villages. Utilization pattern checked for general information of agriculture practices, utilization of mobile apps for gaining market related information and utilization of mobile apps to contact the agriculture experts in order to find out the solution of agriculture problems. More than half of the respondents perceived medium level of utilization pattern of agriculture mobile apps on agricultural practices. To increase the extent to which farmers use agricultural mobile apps for agricultural production, outreach programs and trainings are required.</p> Dharmender Singh P. S. Shehrawat, Joginder Singh Malik, Dangi Pooja Arun, Dinesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 150 153 Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis of Technological Gap between Tribal Pineapple Growers of Meghalaya, India <p>The varied agro-climatic condition of Meghalaya favours cultivation of different horticultural crops, particularly different fruit crops, and pineapple is the most notable of them. The present study was conducted on 200 tribal pineapple growers of Meghalaya in the North- Eastern Himalayan region of India in the year 2017-2018. The article highlighted the technological gap among pineapple growers with special emphasis on the differences in agro-economic, socio-psychological and extension-communication characteristics between the Khasi and the Garo tribes of Meghalaya in the north-eastern Himalayan region of India. The average level of the technological gap of Garo farmers (61.78%) was slightly higher than that of Khasi farmers (57.85%). The Mann-Whitney U test reported that the mean scores of the technological gap for the farmers of West Garo Hills and Ri Bhoi were indicating a significant difference in the technological gap between the farmers of these two tribes. The study suggested the need to understand the differential characteristics of these tribes and to introduce location-specific technologies to minimize the technological gap and increase pineapple production in these tribal areas.</p> Balkho Rangsa Marak Haobijam James Watt, Biswajit Lahiri, Rebekka Syiem, Arup Kumar Bandyopadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 154 157 Knowledge of Farmers About Farm Pond Covered Under Krishi Bhagya Yojane in Karnataka <p>The study was undertaken in Shivamogga and Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka on 80 farmers during 2020-21 to assess the farmers’ knowledge about farm ponds as part of the Krishi Bhagya Yojane (KBY). The primary data on farmers’ knowledge about farm ponds under Krishi Bhagya Yojane was acquired by employing schedule developed for it. All the farmers had knowledge of KBY as a ‘scheme for storing runoff water’, ‘funded by Government of Karnataka’ and ‘Raitha Samparka Kendra as contact office’. Large majority the farmers (98.75%) had knowledge about ‘farm pond, polythene sheet, diesel engine and sprinkler set components’ and 86.25 per cent of farmers had knowledge about ‘polythene sheet to prevent percolation’. 97.50% of farmers had knowledge about ‘subsidy given for all the farmers’ and majority of farmers (87.50%) had knowledge about subsidy given for ‘dugout of farm pond. Knowledge was positively significant with education, economic motivation and area under commercial agriculture, extension contact, mass media exposure, cropping intensity and area under irrigation. 48.70 per cent of variation in knowledge was explained by all the independent variables selected for the study.</p> Guru Prasad Satapathy S. S. Dolli, Rajendra D. Gowda, Debi Kalyan Jayasingh Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 158 161 Attitude of Farmers Toward National Horticulture Mission in Haryana <p>The majority of people in India are dependent directly or indirectly on agricultural sector, which is the country’s largest economic sector. In 2005–06, the Indian government introduced the National Horticulture Mission, a program for the comprehensive development of horticulture, in recognition of the incredible potential of horticulture to promote the expansion of Indian agriculture. The present study was undertaken in the year 2022 to assess the attitude of beneficiary’s farmers towards National Horticulture Mission in Sirsa and Karnal districts of Haryana. A total of 120 farmers were personally interviewed for the purpose of the study and revealed that 43.33 per cent of the respondents had a favourable attitude towards NHM. The type of family, size of horticultural land holding and their socio-economic status, level of education, size of land holding, annual income from horticulture crops, annual family income, mass media exposure had significant association with attitude towards NHM. Establishment of proper cold storage facilities for perishable horticultural crops and more efficient system for diffusion of information to the farmers so that they can adopt new practice efficiently is recommended.</p> Bas Kaur, Subhash Chander, Satpal Baloda Ashok Kumar Godara Sahil Boora, Manisha Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 162 165 A Study on Constraints of Ericulture in Dhemaji District of Assam <p>Sericulture might be considered as an important area for uplifting the economy of rural masses of Assam as the nature has endowed with favorable climatic and environmental conditions for various silk producing worms and their food plants. The research study was undertaken in the purposively selected Dhemaji districts of Assam during the year 2022 with the objectives to study profile characteristics of Eri rearers and to explore the problems faced by them. A total of 120 farmers were selected as respondents and data were collected by following simple random sampling technique by the personal interview method using standardized structured interview schedule. Constraints faced by the Eri silkworm rearers were majorly categorized into five broad categories, viz., personal problem, non-availability of resources, problems during rearing of silkworm, marketing problems and problems related to post cocoon sector of sericulture Appropriate statistical tools viz. frequency, percentage, mean was employed to analyze the data. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents termed “lack of capital” (2.86), “unavailability of rearing equipment” (2.66), “could not get seed in time” (2.88), “involvement of middle men” (2.75) and “lack of availability of spinning machine” (2.73) as the most serious problem under each category.</p> Rekhamoni Gogoi G. Gogoi, R. K. Saud, N. Bhuyan, A. K. Barthakur, M. Neog, P. K. Pathak Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 166 169 Credibility of Information Sources and Channels as Perceived by Paddy Farmers in Telangana State <p>This paper investigates perceived credibility of paddy farmers’ information sources and channels. The dissemination of agricultural information to farmers has been one of the crucial factors for the transmission of newer and relevant technologies. Farmers’ information needs are transforming to more need-based than demand-driven. A sum of 120 respondents was selected based on proportionate random sampling from two villages selected from each of the two blocks of Khammam district. Mean per cent score was used for obtaining the degree of credibility of sources and channels. Opinion leaders in personal localite sources, agricultural scientists in personal cosmopolite sources, result demonstration in personal cosmopolite channels and television in impersonal cosmopolite channels were perceived as highly credible by paddy farmers. One-third of respondents had high level of overall credibility.</p> Ramu Yalakonda Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 170 173 Knowledge Level of Citrus Grower’s Regarding use of Integrated Pest Management Strategies in Punjab <p>The study was carried out in Punjab’s Fazilka District in 2021–2022 as it is major citrus growing district of Punjab. A total 100 respondents (citrus growers) were selected randomly from Fazilka district by using simple random sampling method. The interview schedule was prepared for collection of the data. To gauge the farmers’ level of familiarity with the various IPM tactics, a knowledge test was developed. The respondents had good educational level, bulk of the respondents fall under large category of land holding. Knowledge level of the respondents regarding Integrated Pest Management strategies found to be less. More efforts need to be done to aware the citrus growers regarding Integrated Pest Management strategies.</p> Dharamjeet Singh Grewal Priyanka Sharma, Tariq Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 174 176 Development of Multi-dimensional Scale to Measure Attitude of Farmers Towards Conservation Agricultural Practices <p>Attitude exhibits a pivotal role in influencing one’s behaviour towards any psychological object. The present study aimed at developing and validating a multi-dimensional attitude scale on Conservation Agricultural practices based on Maheshwari–Kumar–Jhamtani– Bhaskaran–Dandapani (M-K-J-B-D) method. The steps included item collection, item selection, item analysis, conducting Principal Component Analysis to extract the underlying dimensions and finally calculation of attitude scores. A total of 75 attitudinal items were pooled initially covering various aspects of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and were subjected to item relevancy checking and item analysis. The final scale contained 25 attitudinal statements under eight sub-dimensions. The reliability of the scale was measured by using Cronbach’s Alpha and the reliability coefficient was found to be 0.80 which was satisfactory. The validity was assessed using content validity method by dispensing the finalized scale to 10 subject related experts. This standardized scale can be used by other academicians of related fields with or without modifications to measure attitude of farmers towards different aspects of Conservation Agriculture.</p> Tannishtha Bardhan Neelam Bhardwaj Shivendra Kumar Kashyap V. L. V. Kameswari Govind Singh Kuswaha Abir Dey Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 127 130 Knowledge Test for Extension Personnel on Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana <p>Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana is one of the massive agriculture development pan Indian programmes unleashed by Government of India requiring collective effort in unison from different agricultural line departments. The standard operating procedures and other nitty gritties of the programme should be clear to the department personnel implementing the same for its efficient reach. The study attempted to develop a Knowledge test comprising 21 items to measure knowledge level of Extension Personnel on Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana during 2021-2022. The knowledge test was pretested on 30 extension personnel from other than the study area. The items with difficulty index ranging from 0.2 to 0.8, discrimination index above 0.1 and point biserial correlation which was significant at 5% level of significance were selected. The reliability of the test was measured by using split half method and was found to be 0.8. Eventually, 21 items were selected for the Knowledge test for extension personnel on Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.</p> Bhagya Vijayan Manjeet Singh Nain Rashmi Singh N. V. Kumbhare Sujay Basappa Kademani Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 131 134 Scale to Assess the Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Cropping System <p>Rice-Wheat Cropping System (RWCS) is a principle cropping system followed in Indo- Gangetic Plains (IGP). Though this monocropping system plays a key role in India’s food sufficiency, it has led to various problems such as soil degradation, groundwater exploitation, environmental damage, yield plateau etc., posing challenge and risk to its sustainability. The scale was developed during 2021-22 to assess the perception level of farmers about the sustainability issues in RWCS. Summated rating scale method by Likert with standardized procedures was used to develop this scale. A total of 54 items were collected and sent to experts for relevancy analysis. Based on the results of relevancy analysis, a schedule consisting of 43 items was used to conduct personally interviewed pre-test. The items were further screened for their differentiating ability and thus, the final scale consisted of 31 items. The scale was found to be valid and reliable as ascertained by content validity and split half test reliability method, respectively. The reliability coefficient of 0.884 indicated the higher internal consistency.</p> Anil Sidaray Chikkalaki Bharat Singh Ghanghas, Pardeep K. Chahal, Shubham Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 135 138 Development of Reliability and Validity of Social Cohesiveness Rating Scale (SCRS) <p>Natural Rubber is an important plantation crop and is gaining importance in North Eastern states of India due to increasing demand of rubber nationally and globally. Method of summated rating was administered in the construction of Social Cohesiveness Rating Scale (SCRS). Comprehensive literatures review and experts’ judgements were considered while identifying the item statements of SCRS. The scale was further standardized by establishing uni-dimensionality through administration of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) using Principal Component with Varimax rotation to extract factors. The final scale consisted of 11 items. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients (rs) on inter-rater reliability of the item statements range from 0.577 to 0.812. High concurrent validity as specified by rs = 0.75 (p &lt; 0.01) signifies a good consideration on the validity of the SCRS to be administered in a research setting.</p> Sanjenbam Sher Singh Rajkumar Josmee Singh, Loukham Devarani, L. Hemochandra, Ram Singh Copyright (c) 2023 The Indian Society of Extension Education ( 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 59 1 139 141