Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Editor J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res Open Journal Systems <p>The Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) was established in the year 1982 and registered under the Certificate of Registration of Societies Act XXVI of 1961 with the registration no. S/40093 of 1982-83 dated 20.02.1983. Since 1983, the society has been publishing two issues of <strong><em>The Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research</em></strong> in a year, first issue in June and second issue in December. So far thirty eight (39) volumes of the Journal have been published. The journal has a current NAAS rating of 5.17 (w.e.f 2021).</p> Chemical Seed Priming to Improve Salinity Tolerance in Rice 2022-03-24T12:57:17+0530 LIZ J KAPPEN DEEPA THOMAS P PRAMEELA <p>A study was conducted at Rice Research Station, Vyttila to assess the effect of seed priming in improving the salinity tolerance of rice varieties. The study consisted of two parts. In the first part, screening of rice varieties for salinity tolerance was done and in the second experiment, the effect of priming on salinity tolerance was assessed. The first experiment was a laboratory study to screen three rice varieties, namely, Jyothi, Uma and Vyttila-10 at five salinity levels <em>i.e.,</em> non-saline, 3 dS m<sup>-1</sup>, 6 dS m<sup>-1</sup>, 9 dS m<sup>-1</sup> and 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Results showed that Jyothi was susceptible to 6 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>salinity at 16 days after sowing (DAS). Uma was moderately tolerant and became susceptible to 6 dS m<sup>-1</sup> at 21 DAS. Vyttila-10 was highly tolerant to 6 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>salinity but it was susceptible to the salinity level of 9 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>at 21 DAS. In the second experiment, seeds of these varieties were primed with three chemicals namely beta-amino butyric acid @ 1 mmol L<sup>-1</sup>, calcium chloride @ 2% and sodium nitroprusside @ 100 µM and with water as control. The seedlings of Jyothi and Uma were raised at salinity levels of 6 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>and 9 dS m<sup>-1</sup>, while seedlings of Vyttila-10 were raised at salinity levels of 9 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>and 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. The efficacy of each priming chemical was analyzed based on germination percentage, growth parameters and visual salt injury symptoms. Priming seeds with calcium chloride was found to improve the growth and salinity tolerance of rice seedlings and could be a reliable method to combat the salinity stress of rice in the initial stages of crop growth.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Chlorophyll Content and SPAD Value Relationships Between Varying Nitrogen Application and Cultivar in Rice 2022-06-25T15:13:39+0530 STUTI DEBAPRIYA BEHERA LALITA MOHAN GARNAYAK BASUDEV BEHERA RAJENDRA KUMAR PANDA <p>The SPAD-502 meter is a portable tool that is extensively used for the rapid, accurate and nondestructive measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentrations. Measurements with the SPAD-502 meter produce relative SPAD meter values that are proportional to the amount of chlorophyll present in the leaf. In order to convert these values into absolute units of chlorophyll concentration, calibration curves must be derived and utilized. Here, we present calibration equations for rice that can be used to convert SPAD values into total chlorophyll per unit leaf area (mg cm<sup>-2</sup>; y = 0.178x - 3.531) or per unit fresh weight of leaf tissue (3.53 mg g<sup>-1</sup>). These relationships were derived using leaf analysis of two rice genotypes (cv. ‘Manaswinee’ and cv. ‘Hasanta’) raised with three nutrient management practices (100% Soil Test Based Nitrogen Recommendation (STBNR), 75% STBNR + <em>in situ</em> green manuring (GM) of <em>dhaincha</em><br />and 50% STBNR + <em>in situ</em> green manuring of <em>dhaincha</em>) under puddled transplanting condition during <em>Kharif</em> seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Agronomy Main Research Farm, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Chlorophyll concentrations were determined at active tillering, heading and physiological maturity stages. Our results revealed that the converted SPAD values differed from photometric measurements of solvent-extracted chlorophyll by regression coefficient (r) values ranging from 0.711 to 0.862 and the relationship was linear using different models. Application of 75% Soil Test Based Nitrogen Recommendation (75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) with green manuring of <em>dhaincha</em> in rice showed the maximum linear regression coefficient (r=0.862) in rice genotype ‘Hasanta’ at the heading stage.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Productive and Profitable Rice-based Cropping Systems for Coastal Plains of Kerala 2021-11-25T12:13:15+0530 MARY M. JOY JINCE JACOB JOHN B SUDHA A.V. MEERA SHALINI PILLAI <p>The production potential and economics of rice-based cropping sequences for coastal plains of Kerala were investigated as part of the ongoing All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Integrated Farming Systems (ICAR) being implemented in the Integrated Farming System Research Station (IFSRS) of Kerala Agricultural University located at Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, during <em>Kharif, Rabi</em> and summer seasons of 2019-2020. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with eleven treatments <em>i.e</em>., CS<sub>1 </sub>: rice - fallow - fallow, CS<sub>2 </sub>: rice - rice - fallow, CS<sub>3 </sub>: rice - <em>dhaincha</em> - cowpea, CS<sub>4</sub> : (rice + <em>dhaincha</em>) - rice - green gram, CS<sub>5</sub> : rice - cassava - amaranthus, CS<sub>6</sub> : rice - cassava - cowpea, CS<sub>7</sub> : rice - para grass - fodder cowpea, CS<sub>8</sub> : rice - fodder cowpea - fodder maize, CS<sub>9 </sub>: rice - okra - culinary melon, CS<sub>10 </sub>: rice - okra - yard long bean and CS<sub>11 </sub>: rice - rice - amaranthus, all replicated thrice. Among the cropping sequences, the productivity in terms of rice equivalent yield (28.93 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and system productivity (0.079 t ha<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>) was highest for CS<sub>10 </sub>: rice - okra - yard long bean. The maximum gross returns (`Rs. 901865 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and net returns (`Rs. 545705 ha<sup>-1</sup>) were also found to be highest for CS<sub>10 </sub>: rice - okra - yard long bean. However, B: C ratio was highest for CS<sub>9 </sub>: rice - okra - culinary melon (2.64) followed by CS<sub>10 </sub>: rice - okra - yard long bean (2.53).</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Effect of Nutrient Management and Rice Establishment Methods on Biochemical and Physiological Attributes, Yield and Economics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Rice-Groundnut Cropping System in Coastal Odisha 2021-12-27T08:07:15+0530 TIRYAK KUMAR SAMANT LALITA MOHAN GARNAYAK RABINDRA KUMAR PAIKARAY KSHITENDRA NARAYAN MISHRA RAJENDRA KUMAR PANDA SUSHANTA KUMAR SWAIN SUKANTA KUMAR SARANGI SATYA NANDA JENA <p>A field experiment was conducted during 2019-20 and 2020-21 to study the effect of nutrient management and rice establishment methods on biochemical, physiological attributes, yield and economics of rice in rice–groundnut cropping system in coastal Odisha. The experimental field was laid out in factorial randomised block design during <em>Kharif</em> and in split-plot design during <em>Rabi</em> with three replications. Six treatment combinations comprising two rice establishment methods <em>viz</em>., direct seeded rice (DSR) and transplanted rice (TPR) and three nutrient management practices, <em>viz</em>., inorganic source, organic source and integrated nutrient management (INM) in rice during <em>Kharif </em>were allotted to the main-plots. Three nutrient management practices to groundnut <em>viz</em>., 75% soil test based fertiliser, STBF (inorganic), 100% STBF (inorganic) and INM during <em>Rabi</em> were allotted to the sub-plots. The results of the study revealed that DSR recorded significantly higher plant height, tillers m<sup>-2</sup>, leaf temperature, net returns (Rs. 39121 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B:C ratio (1.68). The TPR was superior in terms of total chlorophyll content, dry matter production, panicles m<sup>-2</sup>, panicle weight, grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-seed weight, leaf area index (LAI), light transmission ratio (LTR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) resulting in yield improvement of 3.3% over DSR. The INM practice was superior to other nutrient management approaches in total chlorophyll content, dry matter production and its partitioning into panicle (62.5%), panicles m<sup>-2</sup>, grains panicle<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-seed weight, LAI and leaf temperature, which resulted in 13.3 and 15.2% higher grain yield than inorganic and organic source of nutrient management, respectively. The INM treatment also recorded higher plant height, tillers m<sup>-2</sup>, crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), relative growth rate (RGR), net returns (Rs. 56246 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B:C ratio (1.89). Organic sources recorded higher NAR, RGR, panicle weight, but had the lowest dry matter accumulation and net returns.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Nutrient Management Modules for Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): Yield, Quality, Economics, Nutrient Uptake and Post-Harvest Soil Properties 2022-04-16T11:49:11+0530 M. PRUSTY NARAYAN PANDA A.K. DASH N. MISHRA <p>Integrated nutrient management (INM) practices have been recommended to farmers to boost crop productivity and improve soil properties. To test this hypothesis, a field experiment was conducted during <em>Rabi</em> 2015-16 and 2016-17 to study the influence of different nutrient management modules on yield, economics, quality, nutrient uptake and post-harvest soil properties in eggplant. The experiment was comprised of eight treatments replicated thrice in a randomized block design (RBD). The detailed of the treatments were T<sub>1 </sub>- Soil Test Based Fertilizer Recommendation (STBFR), T<sub>2 </sub>- N<sub>100</sub> + P<sub>100</sub>, T<sub>3 </sub>- N<sub>100</sub> + K<sub>100</sub>, T<sub>4 </sub>- P<sub>100</sub> + K<sub>100</sub>, T<sub>5 </sub>- STBFR + <em>Azotobacter</em> @ 5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>6 </sub>- STBFR + PSB @ 5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> , T<sub>7</sub> - STBFR + <em>Azotobacter </em>@ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + PSB @ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>8 </sub>- Control. Results indicated that application of STBFR + <em>Azotobacter </em>@ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + PSB @ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest fruit yield (36.10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and benefit-cost ratio (3.39) which was significantly superior to other treatments. Other yield parameters like plant height (72.80 cm), number of clusters per plant (12.10), average fruit weight (44.80 g) and number of fruits per cluster (8.90) were also observed best in T<sub>7</sub>. Integration of organics, inorganic and biofertilizers in treatment T<sub>7</sub> (STBFR + <em>Azotobacter </em>@ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + PSB @ 4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) showed better response in quality parameters like carbohydrate content (6.93%), protein (30.43%) and ascorbic acid (3.87 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight) in fruit. The nutrient uptake (53.79 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 10.17 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup> and 61.77 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup>) and post-harvest soil nutrient status (266.17 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 15.53 kg P ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 172.73 kg K ha<sup>-1</sup>) were also found to be highest with T<sub>7 </sub>which was superior to rest of the treatments.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Influence of site specific nutrient management and nutrient omission on yield augmentation of maize (Zea mays) in an acid soil 2022-02-21T17:33:05+0530 MITALI MANDAL S.K. PATTANAYAK N PANDA <p>A field experiment was carried out during the Kharif seasons of 2016 and 2017 on a strongly acidic sandy soil (pH- 5.01 and organic carbon - 4.8 g kg-1) of Sambalpur district in Odisha, India to study the influence of site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and nutrient omission technique on the productivity of ‘Mahyco-Hybrid 3845 S’ maize under eight treatment combinations consisting of SSNM, three nutrient omissions, one organic, another organic and inorganic amelioration and absolute control. SSNM treated plot showed the highest biomass production (10.9 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) whereas omission of all NPK resulted in 50.4 % less biomass production. All the major nutrient concentrations <em>i.e</em>., N, P and K were found lowest in their respective omission treatment. It was observed that lime treatment showed the highest Ca content in biomass whereas the lowest in N omitted treatment. Integration of organic alone, with inorganic amelioration and organic-inorganic combination with deficient nutrient resulted in the highest uptake of N, P and K as compared to 100% NPK. SSNM practices improved the soil fertility status and raised the net income and B: C ratio.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Assessment of Crop Water Demand and Irrigation Water Supply in a Run-off-the-river Based Canal System 2022-04-07T13:45:07+0530 ABINASH DALAI ATMARAM MISHRA MAHENDRA PRASAD TRIPATHI <p>Proper assessment of irrigation water need for a canal command is required for long term planning and management of water resources. The present study was carried out in the Phulnakhara distributary command of the Puri main canal system distributed in Cuttack and Khurda districts of Odisha. During <em>Kharif</em> season, the Phulnakhara distributary command receives more than the required amount of irrigation water. However, during <em>Rabi</em> season, the canal does not flow at its full supply level as a result of which the total irrigation demand of the canal command area is not met leading to lower cropping intensity and poor crop productivity. The year-wise highest irrigation water demand in <em>Kharif</em> season was found to be 48646195 m<sup>3</sup> during 2015-16 and the lowest was 22291100 m<sup>3 </sup>in 2017-18. Whereas the highest <em>Kharif </em>irrigation supply at the head regulator was 43402176 m<sup>3</sup> during 2015-16 and the lowest was 29831328 m<sup>3</sup> during 2013-14. The highest <em>Rabi </em>irrigation water demand was found to be 21700766 m<sup>3</sup> during 2008-09 and the lowest was 9570257 m<sup>3 </sup>in 2017-18. Whereas the highest <em>Rabi</em> irrigation supply at head regulator was 26379648 m<sup>3</sup> during 2008-09 and the lowest was 615168 m<sup>3</sup> during 2009-10. As evident, there is a mismatch between the supply and demand in both the seasons and it is more prominent in the <em>Rabi</em> season. In order to bridge this gap, conjunctive use of canal water with groundwater is found to be a promising solution.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Greenwater Technology for Controlling Vibriosis and Achieving Higher Shrimp Production - A Case Study 2022-01-26T17:57:19+0530 KISHORE KUMAR KRISHNANI VELUSAMY KATHIRAVAN M KAILASAM ARUN NAGAVEL <p>Disease due to luminous <em>Vibrio</em> has been a major problem in the shrimp industry. Brackishwater shrimp <em>Penaeus monodon </em>is susceptible to fatal effects of luminous vibriosis adversely affecting the shrimp production and creating economic losses in India. Different technologies have been introduced to control the disease. One of the techniques reported to work against luminous bacteria is greenwater culture system (or finfish–shrimp integrated culture system). The greenwater culture system has been proven the most functional and innovative technique, wherein euryhaline finfish are propagated as bioremediators in an isolated net pens/cages inside the shrimp growing ponds or shrimp are cultured in fish produced greenwater. This paper reports a case study on the successful demonstration of greenwater technology based on the integration of milkfish, <em>Chanos chanos </em>and grey mullet, <em>Mugil cephalus </em>in pens for environmental and health management of brackishwater aquaculture with the result of higher production of shrimp, <em>Penaeus monodon</em>. The greenwater technology has been found to be effective as biomanipulators in controlling the luminous bacteria disease and can be a good alternative to expensive microbial products/probiotics in the aqua-farming ponds throughout the culture period.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Effect of Organophosphate, Monocrotophos on Behavioural, Haematological, Histological and Biochemical Indices in the Subtropical Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) 2022-01-27T19:16:18+0530 S.T. PATTNAIK SURYASIKHA SAMAL C.S.K. MISHRA PULAK GHOSH NISHIGANDHA MUDULI MANISHA BISWAL PRATIK ACHARYA RAMJANUL HAQUE RAJESH KUMAR JITENDRA KUMAR SUNDARAY <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of acute sub-lethal toxicity of monocrotophos on behavioural, biochemical, haematological and histopathological changes in <em>Heteropneustes fossilis</em> (49.53±0.71 g)<em>.</em> Probit analysis showed the 96 h LC50 of monocrotophos for <em>H. fossilis</em> was 20 ppm. Followed by the LC<sub>50</sub> value, sub-lethal concentrations for acute exposure of monocrotophos were 3 ppm in T<sub>1</sub>, 6 ppm in T<sub>2</sub> and 8 ppm in T<sub>3</sub> for 72 h of the experimental period. The behavioural responses observed in treated fish were: erratic movement, imbalance in swimming, surfacing, and hyperactivities. A gradual reduction in total RBC count, haemoglobin, monocyte, and basophil contents were observed with an increased concentration of monocrotophos. On other hand, the total WBC count, neutrophil, basophil and blood ESR showed reversed trend (p&lt;0.05). Total tissue protein content of gill, liver and kidney was altered and decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) in monocrotophos-treated fish. Tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase activities in gill, liver and kidney were also altered after 24 h, 72 h and followed an increasing trend in exposed fish which differed significantly (p&lt;0.05) from the control group. Compared to the control, significant changes were observed in the histopathological architecture of blood cells and gill tissue. The overall result showed that exposure to monocrotophos severely affects fish behaviour and physiology. Therefore the misuse of the chemical may be avoided to reduce the negative impact on aquatic animals.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Impact Assessment of Cyclone Amphan on Agriculture Over Parts of West Bengal Using Remote Sensing 2021-11-25T12:37:02+0530 PRABIR KUMAR DAS TANUMI KUMAR SOUMYA BANDYOPADHYAY SAON BANERJEE <p>Super-cyclone Amphan caused a devastating impact on agriculture in West Bengal. The present study aims at identifying the agricultural areas affected due to cyclone Amphan led water inundation in twelve selected districts of Gangetic West Bengal. The Sentinel 1 data of both pre- and post-cyclonic periods were analyzed to obtain the inundation area. Subsequently, the multi-temporal Landsat 8 datasets of 2019 and 2020 from April to June were analyzed to assess the crop conditions existing during the pre-cyclonic period. Both the layers were intersected to estimate the district-wise inundated agricultural areas along with the crop conditions. The post-cyclone water inundation was highest (43408 ha.) in Purba Medinipur. Among the inundated agricultural area, the standing crop including both growing and mature was significantly higher than harvested crop area. The validation with the ground-based information shows that the proposed approach was able to detect the crop conditions existing during the pre-cyclonic period efficiently with more than 90% accuracy. Hence, the same methodology may be adopted for assessing the crop damages caused due to cyclone induced inundation.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Soil Quality Assessment in the Post-flood Scenario of South Central Laterites of Ernakulam District, Kerala, India 2022-02-02T16:33:44+0530 NEHA UNNI A.K. SREELATHA <p>Kerala was hit by a terrible flood in 2018, wreaking havoc on the agricultural economy and taking lives. The flood caused great damage to Ernakulam district, especially in Agro-Ecological Unit (AEU) 9 which comprises the South Central Laterites. The AEU 9 represents midland laterite terrain with typical laterite soils. An initial survey was conducted in the flood-affected areas and twelve panchayats were selected. Geo-referenced composite soil samples were collected from different panchayats and were characterized for physical, chemical and biological properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for 23 soil attributes which resulted in 7 principal components (PCs) and a minimum data set (MDS) was developed using selected indicators <em>i.e</em>., available calcium, available sulphur, available iron, available nitrogen, available zinc, available boron, bulk density, microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. After the development of MDS, the soil indicators were converted to unit-less scores ranging from 0 to 1 using non-linear scoring function methods. The highest soil quality index was observed in Sreemoolanagaram (0.79) and the lowest in Karumaloor (0.55). Based on the relative soil quality index (RSQI) value different panchayats were categorized into three groups, <em>i.e</em>., poor, medium and good. The RSQI values of less than 50% are categorized as poor, 50-70% as medium and more than 70% as good. No panchayat in the flood-affected area was found to fall in the good category and 50% of the panchayats were found to have poor RSQI.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Development of Targeted Yield Equations for Carrot (Daucus carota) in Inceptisols under the East and South East Coastal Plain Agro-climatic Zone of Odisha 2022-01-18T23:38:01+0530 SIRLA ABHISHEK SUBHASHIS SAREN AKANKSHA BALIAR SINGH ANTARYAMI MISHRA PRADIP DEY <p>.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Performance of Rabi Maize Hybrids under Late-sown Condition in Coastal Belt of West Bengal 2022-06-16T14:55:36+0530 SUBHASIS SAMANTA ASHIS ROY BARMAN HIRAK BANERJEE 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR) Aquatic Invasive Species: Traditional Control Options to Emerging Genetic Bio-control Strategies 2022-04-07T13:48:41+0530 JITENDRA KUMAR SUNDARAY AJMAL HUSSAN IPSITA ISWARI DAS <p>Worldwide, alien species invasion already constitutes to be a major threat to the biodiversity of various ecosystems, particularly in freshwater ecosystems, and with a warming of the climate, the range of habitats suitable for its establishment may increase further. Though it is possible to manage invasive aquatic species in small invaded areas by physical removal, use of barriers or biocides, and environmental modifications, once established and widely distributed, the eradication of invasive species often becomes impractical. To date, biological control is considered the prime realistic option for controlling well established and widely distributed invasive species. But the application of classical biological control methods using unmodified living organisms (predator, parasite or pathogen) to control target populations of alien fishes is very limited to date, mainly because of the difficulties in finding suitable agents. Recent advances in genetic technologies, like chromosome set manipulations or recombinant DNA techniques, or a combination of both techniques provide opportunities that could be used for the control and eradication of individual invasive species. Approaches like sterile-male, super male, female lethal, bisex-lethal, trojan female, sex-reversed trojan female, neo female, daughterless technology, and CRISPR/CAS9 – gene editing are considered far more species-specific than mechanical or chemical methods, and also efficient and cost-effective. However, just a few trials of some of these methods have been undertaken in the field to date, and hence there is still a long way to go before tuning genetic biocontrol approaches into an on-field reality.</p> 2022-07-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR)