In vitro evaluation of fungicides and bio-control agents against sunflower collar rot (Sclerotium rolfsii)
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDES AND BIO-CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST SUNFLOWER COLLAR ROT
Keywords:Bio-agents, Collar rot, Fungicides, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sunflower
The efficacy of different fungicides against Sclerotium rolfsii was tested using poison food technique under in vitro conditions and through seed treatment in screen house. Efficacy of fungicides in vitro against S. rolfsii showed that carboxin, vitavax power and hexaconazole completely inhibited mycelial growth up to 100 per cent at 100 ppm concentration. Thiram inhibited 95.8 per cent and propiconazole inhibited 98.1 per cent at 1000 ppm. Captan inhibited 80.6 per cent at 1000 ppm while, carbendazim only inhibited 18.5 per cent at 1000 ppm. Pencycuron have failed to show antifungal activity against S. rolfsii even at 1000 ppm. Evaluation of bio-agents against S. rolfsii in vitro revealed that Trichoderma harzianum showed maximum antifungal activity with 70.1 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth followed by T. viride (63.1%) and Bacillus spp. (53.7%). Seed treatment with fungicides and soil treatment with bio-agents significantly reduced the disease incidence of collar rot. Maximum collar rot control was
found by carboxin (73.9%) followed by vitavax power (69.9%) and thiram (69.4%) by seed treatment under screen house conditions. For the bio-agents, T. harzianum showed maximum control of the disease (40.8%) followed by Bacillus spp. (36.9%) and T. viride (34.6%) in comparison to control.
Bhuiyan M A H B, Rahman M T and Bhuiyan K A 2012. In vitro screening of fungicides and antagonists against Sclerotium rolfsii. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 14822-14827.
Datta P and Das B C 2002. Management of collar rot of tomato by Trichoderma spp. and chemicals. Indian Phytopathology, 55:
Ganesan S, Kuppusamy R G and Sekar R 2007. Integrated management of stem rot disease (Sclerotium rolfsii) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using Rhizobium and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC-4572). Turkish Journal of Agriculture, 31: 103-108.
Hegde Y R, Chavhan L C, Chavan S S, Rao M S L and Rasalkar R 2010. Evaluation of fungicides against Sclerotium rolfsii causing wilt of Stevia rebaudiana. Journal of Plant Disease Science, 5: 254-256.
Henis Y, Adam P B, Lewis L A and Papavizas G C 1983. Penetration of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii by Trichoderma spp. Phytopathology, 73: 1043-1046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-73-1043
Karthikeyan V, Sankaralingam A and Nakkeeran S 2006. Biological control of groundnut stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Journal of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 39: 239-246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400500094688
Kokub D, Azam F, Hassan A, Ansar M, Asad M J and Khanum A 2007. Comparative growth, morphological and molecular characterization of indigenous Sclerotium rolfsii strains isolated from different locations of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39: 1849-1866.
Kulkarni S, Chattannavar S N and Hegde R K 1986. Laboratory evaluation of fungicides against foot rot of wheat caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Pesticides, 9: 27-31.
Mark G L, Morrissey J P, Higgins P and O'Gara F 2006. Molecular-based strategies to exploit Pseudomonas bio-control strains for environmental biotechnology applications. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 56: 167-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00056.x
Mehta N, Sangwan M S and Saharan G S 2005. Fungal disease of rapeseed-mustard. In: Diseases of Oilseed Crops. pp.15-86.
Saharan G S, Naresh Mehta and Sangwan M S (Eds.), Indus Publishing Co., New Delhi.
Mukherjee S, Tripathi H S and Rathi Y P S 2001. Integrated management of wilt complex in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 31: 213-215.
Nair J R, Singh G and Sekar V 2002. Isolation and characterization of a novel Bacillus strain from coffee phyllosphere showing antifungal activity. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93: 772-780. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01756.x
Papavizas G C 1985. Trichoderma and Gliocladium: Biology, ecology and potential for bio-control. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 23: 23-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.23.090185.000323
Patibanda A K, Upadhyay J P and Mukhopadhyay A N 2002. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai alone or in combination with fungicides against Sclerotium wilt of groundnut. Journal of Biological Control, 16: 57-63.
Prasad R D, Rangeshwaran R and Kumar P S 1999. Biological control of root and collar rot of sunflower. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29: 184-188.
Reino J L R F, Guerrero R H, Galan and Collado I G 2008. Secondary metabolites from species of the bio-control agent Trichoderma. Phytochemistry Review, 7: 89-123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-006-9032-2
Rout M K, Mishra B and Sethy M 2006. In vitro evaluation of agrochemicals, plant extracts and biological antagonists against sclerotial wilt of sunflower caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 42: 263-265.
Sharma S R and Singh U P 1989. Control of collar rot of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by some fungicides. Indian Phytopathology, 42: 318.
Tiwari R K S and Ashok S 2004. Efficacy of fungicides on Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and their effect on Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34: 482-485.
Vidyasekaran P 1999. Biotechnological approaches to suppress seed to plant transmission of seed-borne pathogens. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Seed Science and Technology, 5-7 August 1999 at University of Mysore, Mysore. p.41.