Salinity Characteristics of Soils Supporting Halophyte Vegetation in Saline Desert Ecosystems in Western India


Abstract views: 96 / PDF downloads: 25

Authors

  • Shamsudheen Mangalassery ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Kukma-Bhuj, Gujarat 370 105
  • Devi Dayal ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Kukma-Bhuj, Gujarat 370 105
  • Sachin Patel ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Kukma-Bhuj, Gujarat 370 105

Abstract

Saline soil limits plant growth by affecting osmotic balance in soil-plant systems. Vast areas of saline deserts exist in arid areas of India where crop production is not feasible. One of the ways to effectively utilise such landscape is to use plant species adapted to such hostile environments. Field survey was carried out in two major saline desert ecosystem of western India, namely Great Rann of Kachchh (GRK) and Little Rann of Kachchh (LRK), during 2013 and 2014. The study indicated that these unique ecosystems were deficient in soil organic carbon with content less than 0.77%. Extremes of salinity are common in the study area recording salinity as high as 102.3 dS m-1 in GRK and 85.38 dS m-1 in LRK. The major halophytic plants were Aeluropus lagopoides, Sporobolus marginatus, Suaeda nudiflora and Cressa cretica. Aeluropus was able to grow in soils having salinity upto 27.7 dS m-1, whereas Sporobolus could grow in ecological niches with salinity as high as 83.1 dS m-1. The halophytic non grasses like Suaeda and Cressa were widely distributed in both the saline desert ecosystems. The presence of salts increased the plant population of Suaeda and Cressa up to certain salinity levels. Beyond salinity value of 9.9 dS m-1, the plant density of Suaeda decreased, whereas in Cressa, the salinity value beyond which reduction in population decreased was 27.2 dS m-1. These plants which are able to survive at extremely salinity environments, could be explored for greening saline deserts and could be used as local fodder resource to support livestock population.
Key words: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cressa cretica, salinity, soluble ions, Sporobolus marginatus, Suaeda nudiflora.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abrol, I., Swaminathan, M.S. and Sinha, S. 1986. Salt-affected soils: Problems and prospects in developing countries. In Global Aspects of Food Production (Eds. M.S. Swaminathan and S.K. Sinha), pp. 283-305. Tycooly International.

Albaladejo, J., Ortiz, R., Garcia-Franco, N., Navarro, A.R., Almagro, M., Pintado, J.G. and Martínez-

MANGALASSERY et al.

Mena, M. 2013. Land use and climate change impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in semi-arid Spain. Journal of Soils and Sediments 13: 265-277.

Amezketa, E. 2006. An integrated methodology for assessing soil salinization, a pre-condition for land desertification. Journal of Arid Environments 67: 594-606.

Chinnusamy, V., Jagendorf, A. and Zhu, J.K. 2005. Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Science 45: 437-448.

El-Saidi, M.T. 1997. Salinity and its effect on growth, yield and some physiological processes of crop plants. In Strategies for Improving Salt Tolerance in Higher Plants (Eds. P.K. Jaiwal, R. Singhm, A. Gulati), pp. 40-55. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India.

FAO, U. 1974. Soil Map of the World 1: 5000000, Vol. I, Legend. UNESCO, Paris, France.

Flowers, T.J., Troke, P.F. and Yeo, A.R. 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28: 89-121.

Ghassemi, F., Jakeman, A.J. and Nix, H.A. 1995. Salinisation of Land and Water Resources: Human Causes, Extent, Management and Case Studies. UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, and CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Gihad, E.A. and El Shaer, H.M. 1992. Utilization of halophytes by livestock on rangelands. In Halophytes as a Resource for Livestock and for Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands (Eds. V.R. Squires and A.T. Ayoub), pp. 77-96. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands,

Gulzar, S. and Khan, M.A. 1994. Seed banks of coastal shrub communities. Ecoprint 1: 1-6.

Gupta, V. and Ansari, A.A. 2014. Geomorphic portrait of the Little Rann of Kutch. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 7: 527-536.

Hassan, M. and Shaer, E.I. 2010. Halophytes and salt-tolerant plants as potential forage for ruminants in the Near East region. Small Ruminant Research 91: 3-12.

Judkins, G. and Myint, S. 2012. Spatial variation of soil salinity in the Mexicali valley, Mexico: Application of a practical method for agricultural monitoring. Environmental Management 50: 478-489.

Khorsandi, F. and Yazdi, F.A. 2011. Estimation of saturated paste extracts’ electrical conductivity from 1:5 soil/water suspension and gypsum. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(3): 315-321.

Keller, A.A. and Goldstein, R.A. 1998. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle. Environmental Management 22: 757-766.

Khan, M.A., Ungar, I.A. and Showalter, A.M. 2000. Effects of salinity on growth, water relations and ion accumulation of the subtropical perennial halophyte. Atriplex griffithii var. stocksii. Annals of Botany 85: 225-232.

Le Houérou and Henry, N. 2000. Utilization of fodder trees and shrubs in the arid and semiarid zones of West Asia and North Africa. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 14: 101-135.

Liu, G.M., Yang, J.S. and Yao, R.J. 2006. Electrical conductivity in soil extracts: Chemical factors and their intensity. Pedosphere 16(1): 100-107.

Mandal, A.K., Sharma, R.C., Singh, G. and Dagar, J.C. 2010. Computerized database on salt affected sil in India. Technical Bulletin No. CSSRI/Karnal/2/2010. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India, 28 p.

Merh, S. and Chamyal, L. 1997. The Quaternary Geology of Gujarat Alluvial Plains. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India.

Munns, R. and Tester, M. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Reviews in Plant Biology 59: 651-681.

Naz, N., Hameed, M. and Ashraf, M. 2010. Eco-morphic response to salt stress in two halophytic grasses from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42: 1343-1351.

Odeh, I.O.A. and Onus, A. 2008. Spatial analysis of soil salinity and soil structural stability in a semiarid region of New South Wales, Australia. Environmental Management 42: 265.

Ollivier, B., Caumette, P., Garcia, J.L. and Mah, R.A. 1994. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments. Microbiological Reviews 58: 27-38.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2 - Chemical and microbiological properties, second edition. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. USA, pp. 1159.

Pandit, A.S., Joshi, M.N., Bhargava, P., Ayachit, G.N., Shaikh, I.M., Saiyed, Z.M., Saxena, A.K. and Bagatharia, S.B. 2014. Metagenomes from the saline desert of Kutch. Genome Announcements: e00439-00414.

Panta, S., Flowers, T., Lane, P., Doyle, R., Haros, G. and Shabala, S. 2014. Halophyte agriculture: Success stories. Environmental and Experimental Botany 107: 71-83.

Patel, A.D., Jadeja, H. and Pandey, A.N. 2010. Effect of salinization of soil on growth, water status and nutrient accumulation in seedlings of Acacia auriculiformis (Fabaceae). Journal of Plant Nutrition 33: 914-932.

Ravindran, K.C., Venkatesan, K., Balakrishnan, V., Chellappan, K.P. and Balasubramanian, T. 2007. Restoration of saline land by halophytes

SOILS SUPPORTING HALOPHYTE VEGETATION IN SALINE DESERT ECOSYSTEMS 73

for Indian soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 2661-2664.

Rey, A., Petsikos, C., Jarvis, P.G. and Grace, J. 2005. Effect of temperature and moisture on rates of carbon mineralization in a Mediterranean oak forest soil under controlled and field conditions. European Journal of Soil Science 56: 589-599.

Schlesinger, W.H. and Andrews, J.A. 2000. Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle. Biogeochemistry 48: 7-20.

Shrivastava, P. and Kumar, R. 2015. Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22: 123-131.

Singh, N. and Kar, A. 2001. Characteristics of major soils of Banni mudflat in arid western India and their relationship with topography. Journal of Arid Environments 48: 509-520.

Tang, X., Liu, S., Liu, J. and Zhou, G. 2010. Effects of vegetation restoration and slope positions on soil aggregation and soil carbon accumulation on heavily eroded tropical land of Southern China. Journal of Soils Sediments 10: 505-513.

Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-38.

Wang, H., Liu, S., Chang, S.X., Wang, J., Shi, Z., Huang, X., Wen, Y., Lu, L. and Cai, D. 2015. Soil microbial community composition rather than litter quality is linked with soil organic carbon chemical composition in plantations in subtropical China. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15: 1094-1103.

Wang, M., Su, Y. and Yang, X. 2014. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in desert grasslands of the Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. PloS One: e94652.

Wichern, J., Wichern, F. and Joergensen, R.G. 2006. Impact of salinity on soil microbial communities and the decomposition of maize in acidic soils. Geoderma 137: 100-108.

Xianzhao, L., Chunzhi, W. and Qing, S. 2013. Screening for salt tolerance in eight halophyte species from yellow river delta at the two initial growth stages. ISRN Agron 2013.

Downloads

Submitted

2018-04-16

Published

2018-04-16

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Salinity Characteristics of Soils Supporting Halophyte Vegetation in Saline Desert Ecosystems in Western India. (2018). Annals of Arid Zone, 56(3 & 4). https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/AAZ/article/view/78856