Nutrient Utilization, Milk Yield and Economics of Production in Crossbred Cows Fed Berseem Hay Meal Supplemented Diet


  • M.M.Das Indian grassland and fodder research institute
  • Sultan Singh Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India
  • P. Sharma Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India
  • Khem Chand Plant Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India


Berseem hay meal, Crossbred cows, Economics of milk production, Milk yield, Mustard cake, Nutrient utilization


The  replacement effect  of mustard cake protein with berseem hay meal protein  in concentrate mixture was studied  for nutrient utilization, milk yield and economics of production in  crossbred cows. In the control group(G1), the animals were fed control concentrate mixture with wheat straw ad libitum whereas in the treated  group (G2), 60% N of mustard cake was replaced with berseem hay meal  in the   concentrate mixtures along with wheat straw ad libitum for a period of  two and half months. Both the groups were provided iso-energetic and iso nitrogeneous diet. The intake of dry matter either as percentage of body weight or per kg metabolic body size was comparable between the groups. Similarly, the digestibility of nutrients viz.DM, OM, NDF and ADF were similar in both the groups. Milk yield (7.02 Vs 7.21 kg/d) and composition of milk of animals fed with or without supplementation of BHM   was also non- significantly different indicating that legumes did not change the composition of milk. Feed conversion efficiency for milk production and N utilization efficiency was also similar between the groups. Average daily feeding cost and cost of milk production(Rs/kg 4%FCM) reduced (P<0.05) by 13.89 and 17.53%, respectively in cows fed experimental diet, hence net daily income was increased (P<0.05) by Rs. 26.71 per cow. It may be concluded that  mustard cake can safely be replaced by berseem hay meal(BHM) in  iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeneous diet in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ dairy production without compromising the feed intake, nutrient utilization and milk yield of crossbred cows.


A.O.A.C. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis (17th Edn.) Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Anjum M.I., S Ghazanfar and I. Begum, 2014. Nutritional composition of wheat grains and straw influenced by differences in varieties grown under uniform agronomic practices. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 3(3): 100-104.

Corea,E.E., Aguilar, J.M., Alas, N.P., Alas, E.A Flores, J.M. and Broderick, G.A.2017. Effects of dietary cowpea (Vigna sinensis) hay and protein level on milk yield, milk composition, N efficiency and profitability of dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 226 : 48–55.

Garg, M.R., Sherasia, P.L., Bhanderi, B.M. and Makkar, H.P.S.2016. Nitrogen use efficiency for milk production on feeding a balanced ration and predicting manure nitrogen excretion in lactating cows and buffaloes under tropical conditions. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology. 16: 1-12.

Hafsa S.H.A and Hassan, A. A. 2021.Partial berseem hay replacement by Panicum maximum grass on caecal fermentation activity, performance, and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Livestock science. 250:1-7.

ICAR. 2013. Nutrients Requirements of Cattle and Buffalo. Official Publication. Nutrients Requirement of Animals. ICAR, New Delhi,India.

ISI. 1961.Chemical analysis of milk, part II. Indian Standards Methods of test for dairy industry. New Delhi, India: Indian Standards Institute.

Kabirizi, J. 2006. Effect of incorporating forage legumes in smallholder dairy farming systems on feed availability and animal performance. PhD Thesis. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Katuromunda, S., Sabiiti, E.N. and Mateete Bekunda, A.2012.Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered Pennisetum purpureum basal diet on feed intake and manure quality.Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012, 13 (1): 25-34.

Kitaw G., Melaku, S.and E.Seifu. 2010.Replacement of Concentrate mix with vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) hay on feed intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition of lactating crossbred dairy cows fed urea- molasses treated wheat straw . East African Journal of Science. 4 (1) :11-19.

Kiyothong, K. and Wanapat, M.2004.Supplementation of Cassava Hay and Stylo 184 Hay to Replace Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Cows. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science. 17(5) : 670-677.

Kumar, D., Chander Datt., Das, L. K. and Kundu, S. S..2018.Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content. Engormix/Animal Feed/Technical articles

Machado, S.C., McManus, C.M. and Stumpf, M.T. 2014. Concentrate: forage ratio in the diet of dairy cows does not alter milk physical attributes. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 46: 855–859.

Makkar H.P.S.2016. Animal nutrition in a 360-degree view and a framework for future R and D work: towards sustainable livestock production. Animal Production Science. 56: 1561–1568.

McDonald P., R.A. Edwards and J.F.D. 1995.Greenhalgh. Animal Nutrition. 5th Edn., Longman Publishers, London. 356-398.

Mediksa, T., Ishetu, S.,Abera, H. and Marsha, T. 2016.Effects of replacement of formulated concentrate mix with cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) hay on feed utilization, milk and and

milk composition of lactating Horro bred cows fed natural grass hay. Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 6(130):42-49. www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online

Montoya, J.C., Gownipuram, R., Guillen, E.C. and Dickhoefer, U.2016.Effects of feeding tropical forage legumes on nutrients digestibility and performance of dairy cows. Tropentag, September 18-21, 2016, Vienna, Austria “Solidarity in a competing world fair use of resources”

Mpairwe, D.R., Sabiiti, E.N., Ummuna, N.N.,Tegegne, A. and Osuji, P. 2003.Integration of forage legumes with cereal crops. I. Effects of supplementation with graded levels of lablab hay on voluntary food intake, digestibility, milk yield and milk composition of crossbred cows fed maize–lablab stover or oats–vetch hay adlibitum. Livestock Production Science. 79: 193-212.

Nugroho, D. F., Suranindyah, Y. Y. and Astuti, A., 2020. The effect of supplementation of Leucaena leucochepala leaf in Friesian Holstein cows ration on milk production and composition. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.478,012008. IOP publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/478/1/012008

Pailan, G.H., Gupta, J.N., Sharma, P.and Mahanta, S.K.2010.Effect of stylo meal supplementation in lactating buffaloes: An on-farm trial. Indian Journal of Animal Science. 80 (10): 1031–33.

Phelan, P., Moloney, A.P., Geough, E.J.M., Humphreys, J., Bertilsson, E. G., Riordan, O and Kiely, P.O.2015. Forage legumes for grazing and conserving in ruminant production systems. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 34:281-32

Rahman, M.Z., Md. Yousuf Ali, M.Y., Sarker, N.R., Afroz, M.F.,Rahman, M.O.A. and Karim, M.R. 2015. Effect of modified feeding practice on milk production of cross bred dairy cows in Baghabari milk shed area, Sirajgonj. Asian Journal of Medicinal Biological Research. 1: 254-258.

Rehman, A., Arif, M., Saeed, M., Manan, A., Sagheer, A., Abdel-hack, M., Swelum, A.and Alowaimer. A.2020. Nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of mid-lactation Jersey × Friesian cows fed diets containing different proportions of rumen-undegradable protein. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 92(Suppl. 1): e20180787 DOI 10.1590/0001-3765202020180787

Richards, D.E., Brown, W.F., Ruegsegger, G.and Bates, D.B. 1994. Replacement value of tree legumes for concentrate in forage-based diets. II. Replacement value of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium for lactating goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 43: 53 – 65.

Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A.1991.Methods for dietary fibre, neutraldetergent fibre and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74:3583–3597.

Wangchuk, G.M., Rizal, J.,Gyltshen, C.Rinzin and Rinchen. D.2022.Effect of feeding gliricidia and stylo meal on the milk yield and composition of dairy cows. Bhutan Journal of Animal Science,6(1): 40-45.

Widiawati Y., Purwantari, N. D., Sajimin and Herliatika, A. 2019. The utilization of Arachis pintoi and Gliricidia sepium as protein-sources substitute for dairy cattle.ISTAP 2019IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 387 012035IOP Publishingdoi:10.1088/1755-1315/387/1/0120352







How to Cite

Nutrient Utilization, Milk Yield and Economics of Production in Crossbred Cows Fed Berseem Hay Meal Supplemented Diet. (2023). Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 40(2).