Blue revolution in India: Status and future perspectives
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Fisheries and aquaculture development in India witnessed impressive growth in recent years. The country is rich in aquatic genetic resources distributed from deep sea to the cold Himalayan rivers sharing about 10% of the global aquatic biodiversity. The capture fisheries production in the country has more or less stabilised but the growth in inland aquaculture has been tremendous during the past three decades. Freshwater aquaculture contributes to about 85-90% of the farmed fish. In 2018-19, India was the second largest producer of fish in the world with a total production of 13.4 million t Â comprising 3.7 million t from marine and 9.7 million t Â from inland sector. The technological advances enabled the country to significantly enhance production and productivity particularly in the fresh and brackishwater aquaculture sectors. Recent progress in cage culture in reservoirs and mariculture in the sea offer new avenues for aquaculture diversification and development. Major constraints in capture fisheries production are depleted stocks due to habitat degradation, overexploitation, poor governance, climate change, in addition to harvest and post-harvest losses. The key problems in culture fisheries include low average productivity due to low adoption of technology, disease prevalence, non-availability of quality seed and cost effective feed for desired species. Cutting edge translational research and technology upscaling and dissemination along with improved governance, fisher and farmer centric fisheries policy support and large scale capacity building in both aquaculture and marine fisheries sectors are the key strategies for achieving the targets of blue revolution in the country. This comprehensive review of the Indian fisheries and aquaculture provides latest information on resources, sectoral production, technology intervention and policy formulations along with recommendations Â as well as future perspectives.
Keywords:Â Aquaculture, Blue revolution, Current status, Indian fisheries, Perspectives, PoliciesÂ Â