Association of photosynthesis of flag leaves with grain yield in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.).

Abstract views: 74 / PDF downloads: 71

Flag leaves association with yield in pearl millet


  • Sanjana Reddy ICAR- Indian Institute of Millets Research


The grain yield of pearl millet has increased continuously in past decades through development of hybrids and improved production practices. Elite inbred lines are crucial for innovating new germplasm/traits to break the yield plateau. Hence, 64 inbred lines of pearl millet were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic variability and association among agronomic, physiological and grain yield contributing traits. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the lines for all the traits indicating sufficient variability for genetic exploitation. The preferred arid adaptation traits, early flowering and high tillering were associated with each other making them amenable for simultaneous selection and these two traits were not associated with grain yield. Hence, for deriving ideotypes suitable for arid adaptation, intensive selection for grain yield in early flowering background was suggested. In productive regions, the plants having greater plant height, larger size of leaves including flag leaf, larger panicle size to accommodate the photosynthates are desirable and these traits were found to be associated among themselves and with grain yield in the current study. Though the maximal photosynthetic efficiency, Fv/Fm was significantly associated with leaf length, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and actual PSII efficiency (Y(II)), these physiological parameters did not significantly associate with grain yield directly and their effects are confounded within the leaf morphological variation.


Download data is not yet available.


Austin, R.B., Edrich, J.A., Evans, L.T., Ford, M.A. and Blackwell, R.D. 1977. The fate of the dry weight, carbohydrates and C14 lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling. Annals of Botany 41: 1309-1321.

Evans, L.T., Wardlaw, I.F. and Fisher, R.A. 1969. Wheat. In: Crop physiology. (Evans L.T., ed). New York: Cambridge University Press; pp. 101-149.

Fischer, R.A., Rees, D., Sayre, K.D., Lu, Z.M., Condon, A.G. and Saavedra, A.L. 1998. Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler canopies. Crop Science 38: 1467-1475.

Gutierrez-Rodrıguez, M., Reynolds, M.P. and Larque´-Saavedra, A. 2000. Photosynthesis of wheat in a warm, irrigated environment. II. Traits associated with genetic gains in yield. Field Crop Research 66: 51-62.

Horton, P. 2000. Prospects for crop improvement through the genetic manipulation of photosynthesis: morphological and biochemical aspects of light capture. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 475-485.

Kitajima, M. and Butler, W.L. 1975. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and primary photochemistry in chloroplasts by dibromothymoquinone. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 376: 105-115

Li, C., Tao, Z., Liu, P., Zhang, J., Zhuang, K., Dong, S. and Zhao, M. 2015. Increased grain yield with improved photosynthetic characters in modern maize parental lines. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14(9): 1735-1744.

Makunga, O.H.D., Pearman, I., Thomas, S.M. and Thorne, G.N. 1978. Distribution of photosynthate produced before and after anthesis in tall and semi dwarf winter wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilizer. Annals of Applied Biology 88: 429-437.

Rahman, M.A., Haque, M., Sikdar, B., Islam, M.A. and Matin, M.N. 2014. Correlation analysis of fag leaf with yield in several rice cultivars. Journal of Life and Earth Science 8: 49-54.

Reynolds, M.P., van Ginkel, M. and Ribaut, J.M. 2000. Avenues for genetic modification of radiation use efficiency in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 459-473.

Richards, R.A. 2000. Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 447-458.

Sanjana Reddy, P., Satyavathi, C.T., Khandelwal, V., Patil, H.T., Gupta, P.C., Sharma, L.D., Mungra, K.D., Singh, S.P., Narasimhulu, R., Bhadarge, H.H., Iyanar, K., Tripathi, M.K., Yadav, D., Bhardwaj, R., Talwar, A.M., Tiwari, V.K., Kachole, U.G., Sravanti, K., Shanthi Priya, M., Athoni, B.K., Anuradha, N., Govindaraj, M., Nepolean, T. and Tonapi, V.A. 2021. Performance and stability of pearl millet varieties for grain yield and micronutrients in arid and semi-arid regions of India. Frontiers in plant science 12: 670201. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.670201.

Tian, Y., Zhang, H., Xu, P., Chen, X., Liao, Y. and Han, B. 2015. Genetic mapping of a QTL controlling leaf width and grain number in rice. Euphytica 202(1): 1-11

Wang, Y., Pang, Y., Chenc, K., Zhaia, L., Shenc, C., Wang, S. and Xus, J. 2020. Genetic basis of source-, sink-, and yield-related traits revealed by genome-wide association study in Xian rice. The Crop Journal 8: 119-131.

Yadav, O.P., Gupta, S.K., Govindaraj, M., Sharma, R., Varshney, R.K., Srivastava, R.K., Rathore, A. and Mahala, R.S. 2021. Genetic gains in pearl millet in India: Insights into historic breeding strategies and future perspective. Frontiers in Plant Science 12: 645038. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.645038

Yang, X., Chen, X., Ge, Q., Li, B., Tong, Y., Li, Z., Kuang, T. and Lu, C. 2007. Characterization of photosynthesis of flag leaves in a wheat hybrid and its parents grown under field conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 164: 318-326.






How to Cite

Association of photosynthesis of flag leaves with grain yield in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). : Flag leaves association with yield in pearl millet. (2023). Annals of Arid Zone, 62(1), 91-96.