Generation mean analysis in maize (Zea mays) for yields and yield attributing traits

Abstract views: 424 / PDF downloads: 120


  • PREETI SHARMA CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • MEHAR CHAND KAMBOJ CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • NARENDER SINGH CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • RAMESH KUMAR CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • NAVEEN KUMAR CCSHAU, Regional Research Station, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India


Additive-dominance effect, Generation means, Gene effects, Maize, Non-allelic interactions


The nature of gene action involved is mainly responsible for the genetic improvement of any crop. Generation means analysis for maize (Zea mays L.) yield and its traits for six generations, i.e. P1, P2 F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of six crosses evaluated at Karnal. Significant individual and joint scaling tests indicated inadequacy of three parameter models and presence of epistasis in all characters indicating greater genetic variation in parents. However, only shelling percentage in HKI 209 × HKI 163 showed additive-dominance. The presence of duplicate form of non-allelic gene interactions was prominent, except for days to maturity and cob diameter in HKI 325-17AN × HKI 163, cob length in HKI 209 × HKI 163 and shelling percentage in HKI 1332 × HKI 163 where complementary gene action is recorded. It suggests selection from F3 generation onwards for character improvement. Dominance and duplicate type of epistatic effects were found to be more prominent for inheritance than additive effects alone for grain yield/plant, grains/cob, and plant height suggesting the reciprocal recurrent selection or bi-parental mating design to improve in these characters. In crosses where dominance was of major importance, the trait could be successfully utilized for the exploitation of hybrid vigour. Some significant additive and additive × additive effects were recorded in all of these crosses, and therefore gain from selection could be possible, fixable and heritable epistasis could be effectively used in the selection of superior inbred lines.


Download data is not yet available.


Alam A K, Ahmed M M, Begum S M and Sultan M K. 2008. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and its contributing characters in maize. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 33(3): 375–79.

Ali A, Rahman H, Farhatullah and Shah Z. 2019. Genetic analysis of yield and its contributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 35(2): 654–62.

Ali G, Rather A C, Ishfaq A, Dar S A, Wani S A and Khan M N. 2007. Gene action for grain yield and its attributes in maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(2): 278–81.

Cavalli L L. 1952. An analysis of linkage in quantitative inheritance. Quantitative Inheritance. pp. 135–44. Rieve ECR and Waddington CH (Eds), HM Stationery Office. London

Edwards L H, Ketata H and Smith E L. 1975. Gene Action of Heading Date, Plant Height, and Other Characters in Two Winter Wheat Crosses.Crop Sciences 16: 275–77.

Ewool M B, Kena A W, Amoah R A and Akromah R. 2020. Studies of genetic control of pro-vitamin A maize hybrids in Ghana. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 9(2): 196–205.

Hayman B I. 1958. The separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means. Heredity 12: 371–90.

Irshad-ul-haq, Ajmal M S, Munir M and Gulfaraz M. 2010. Gene action studies of different quantitative traits in maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(2): 1021–30.

Lingaiah N, Raju C S, Radhika K, Sarla N, Venkanna V and Reddy D V V. 2020. Estimation of gene effects through generation mean analysis in elite rice (Oryza sativa L.) crosses. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 8(1): 15–20.

Mather K. 1949. Biometrical Genetics, pp. 158. Dover publications Inc., New York.

Noor M, Fahad S, Rahman H U, Shahwar D, Yasir M, Alam M, Ullah H, Adnan M, Jamal Y, Wahid F and Ali F. 2018. Generation mean analysis for grain yield and its components in popcorn. Open Agriculture 3: 437–58.

Shahrokhi M, Khorasani S K and Ebrahimi A. 2013. Study of genetic components in various maize (Zea mays L.) traits, using generation mean analysis method. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 4(3): 405–12.

Sher H, Iqbal M, Khan K, Yasir M and Rahman H. 2012. Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2(8): 621–26.









How to Cite

SHARMA, P., KAMBOJ, M. C., SINGH, N., KUMAR, R., & KUMAR, N. (2022). Generation mean analysis in maize (Zea mays) for yields and yield attributing traits. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 92(1), 110-117.