Drone-based herbicide application for energy saving, higher weed control and economics in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa)

Abstract views: 695 / PDF downloads: 752


  • R AROCKIA INFANT PAUL Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003, India
  • P MURALI ARTHANARI ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Sirugamani, Tamil Nadu
  • S PAZHANIVELAN Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003, India
  • R KAVITHA Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003, India
  • M DJANAGUIRAMAN Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003, India



Direct-seeded rice, Drone, Energy, Herbicide, UAV, Weed control efficiency


A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif (rainy) and rabi (winter) seasons of 2022 and 2023 to evaluate the efficiency, energy and economics of drone-based herbicide application in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). The study was carried out with application of pre-emergence, early post-emergence and post-emergence herbicides using drone and knapsack sprayer to assess the weed control efficiency. Treatments included pretilachlor followed by (fb) application of post-emergence herbicides, such as bispyribacsodium (Na), fenoxyprop ethyl + carfentrazone ethyl and early post-emergence herbicides, such as bispyribac-Na, fenoxyprop ethyl + carfentrazone ethyl, bispyribac-Na fb post-emergence of fenoxyprop ethyl + carfentrazone ethyl, weed-free check and unweeded check. Application of pretilachlor fb bispyribac-Na using knapsack sprayer reduced weed density from 83 to 87% and weed dry weight from 81 to 83% over unweeded plot. Moreover, it was found on par with drone application of same herbicides in both seasons. Pretilachlor fb bispyribac-Na application through knapsack sprayer and drone produced higher grain yield and it was comparable with weed-free plot. Higher net return, benefit: cost ratio (2.27 and 2.09), energy-use efficiency (10.86 and 9.55 MJ) and energy productivity (0.81 and 0.71 kg/MJ) were noticed with drone application of pretilachlor fb bispyribac-Na in both the seasons. From the experiment, drone application of pretilachlor fb bispyribac-Na is found as an effective strategy to manage weeds in direct-seeded rice and more advantageous in terms of energy-use and profitability.


Download data is not yet available.


Ansari M, Yadav R, Siddiqui M, Ansari M, Khan N, Mishra D and Husain K. 2017. Efficacy of crop establishment techniques and weed control measures on weed dynamics, weed control efficiency and productivity in rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87(8): 1084–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v87i8.73276

Cao L, Cao C, Wang Y, Li X, Zhou Z, Li F, Yan X and Huang Q. 2017. Visual determination of potential dermal and inhalation exposure using allura red as an environmentally friendly pesticide surrogate. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering 5: 3882–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b03050

Chen Y, Qi H, Li G and Lan Y. 2019. Weed control effect of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application in wheat field. International Journal of Precision Agricultural Aviation 2(2): 31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33440/j.ijpaa.20190202.45

Chinnamani I, Aasif M, Kumar N S, Velayutham A and Suresh S. 2018. Influence of weed management practices on weed dynamics and yield of drum seeded rice under puddled condition. International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology 5(7): 17–23.

Dass A, Shekhawat K, Choudhary, Anil K, Sepat S, Rathore S S, Mahajan G and Chauhan B S. 2017. Weed management in rice using crop-competition. Crop Protection. 95: 45–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.005

Devasenapathy P, Senthilkumar G and Shanmugam P. 2009. Energy management in crop production. Indian Journal of Agronomy 54(1): 80–90.

Garre P and Harish A. 2018. (In) Autonomous agricultural pesticide spraying UAV, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 455(012030): 1–3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/455/1/012030

Gomez K A and Gomez A A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd edn. International Rice Research Institute, P. O. Box. Manila Philippines and John wiley and sons, New York, USA.

Kumar S, Shivani J, Mishra J, Kumar S and Bharati R. 2018. Efficacy of pre-and post-emergence herbicides on complex weed flora in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa) in the eastern plains. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 88(3): 387–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v88i3.78502

Mahajan G and Chauhan B. 2015. Weed control in dry direct-seeded rice using tank mixtures of herbicides in South Asia. Crop Protection 72: 90–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.03.002

Mani V, Malla M and Gautam K C. 1973. Weed-killing chemicals in potato cultivation. Indian farming 23(8): 17–18.

Martin D, Singh V, Latheef M A and Bagavathiannan M. 2020. Spray deposition on weeds (Palmer amaranth and Morningglory) from a remotely piloted aerial application system and backpack sprayer. Drones 4(59): 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/drones4030059

Patel T U, Lodaya D H, Italiya A P, Patel D D and Patel H H. 2018. Bio-efficacy of herbicides in direct-seeded rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science 50(2): 120–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-8164.2018.00030.8

Pratap V, Verma S K, Dass A, Yadav D K, Jaysawal P K and Madane A J. 2021. Productivity, economics and resource-use efficiency of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varying crop establishment methods and weed management practices. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 91(4): 537–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v91i4.112635

Sangeetha S P, Balakrishnan A, Priya R S and Maheswari J. 2009. Influence of seeding methods and weed management practices on direct seeded rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 41(3&4): 210–12.

Soren C, Bera S, Mukhopadhyay S and Saren D. 2017. Bio-efficacy and phytotoxicity studies of Bispyribac Sodium 10% sc in direct seeded rice. Journal of Crop and Weed 13(3): 165–67.

Srivastava S K, Singh J, Kumar N R, Singh N P and Ahmad N. 2020. Changing agricultural labour market and its effects on farm economy in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 75(4): 469–80.

Sunil C M, Shekara B G, Kalyanmurthy K N and Shankaralingapa B C. 2010. Growth and yield of aerobic rice as influenced by integrated weed management practices. Indian Journal of Weed Science 42(3&4): 180-83.

Vaishnavi P and Manisankar G. 2022. Labour scarcity in agriculture: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal 11(4): 2087–90.









How to Cite

PAUL, R. A. I., ARTHANARI, P. M., PAZHANIVELAN, S., KAVITHA, R., & DJANAGUIRAMAN, M. (2023). Drone-based herbicide application for energy saving, higher weed control and economics in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 93(7), 704–709. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v93i7.137859