Agronomic assessment of rice genotypes (Oryza sativa) under different levels of fertilizer application: A review

Abstract views: 972 / PDF downloads: 1113


  • SUPRIYA ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • RAKESH KUMAR ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar
  • PARKASH VERMA ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • AMRESH CHAUDHARY ICAR-National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Malegaon, Maharashtra
  • SUDARSHAN S ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
  • KAMAL GARG ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132 001, India
  • SHASHANK PATEL ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi


B:C ratio, Fertilizer levels, Lowland rice, Rice genotypes, Tiller, Transplant


The current rice production system, centered around the high-input green revolution methods, tends to favour affluent farmers, leaving lower-income farmers unable to fully embrace modern agricultural techniques due to soaring input prices. In India, shrinking cultivable land and a growing population have led to intensified agronomic practices like heavy chemical fertilizer usage mainly impacting soil health and crops productivity especially rice. This trend has discouraged poorer farmers from rice cultivation due to diminishing factor productivity and profitability amidst rising input expenses, posing significant concerns about sustainability and economic viability. In this context, the review aims to assess how rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes perform when exposed to varying levels of fertilizer application, providing valuable insights into their adaptability and potential for increased productivity and soil fertility. It was investigated how different fertilizer levels, specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, affects important agronomic practices, yield-related parameters, and grain quality in various rice genotypes. A diverse set of genotypes represent a broad spectrum of genetic background and adaptation strategies, including those known for their efficiency in using nutrients. Highlighting how the robustness of certain genotypes under conditions with limited nutrients maintained satisfactory yields and grain quality. In contrast, some genotypes demonstrated superior performance under higher fertility conditions, resulting in significant yield increases, larger grain sizes, and improved nutritional profiles. These approaches optimize fertilizer application, reduce the environmental impacts associated with excessive nutrient use, and ultimately enhance overall rice production.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul H, Jafar Ullah, Atlaf Hossain, Aminul Islam and Shahrina Akhtar. 2016. Response of indigenous rice cultivars to applied fertilizers in Tidal floodplain of South Central Coastal Region of Bangladesh. Academia Journal Agricultural Research 4(4): 168–75.

Bahuguna A, Singh D K, Hodkashia S, Supriya, Padhan S R and Verma P. 2023. Effect of different fertility levels on growth and production potential of rice genotypes. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 35(17): 539–48.

Bahuguna A, Singh D K, Supriya, Kumar A, Garg K, Verma P, Patel S and S S. 2023. Agronomic evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under varying fertility levels. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 93(11): 1258–61. https://doi. org/10.56093/ijas.v93i11.141416

Cai H, Lu Y, Xia W, Zhu T and Lian X. 2012. Transcriptome response to nitrogen starvation in rice. Journal of Biological Science 37: 731–47.

Chaudhary A, Meena M C, Dwivedi B S, Datta S P, Parihar C M, Abhir D and Sharma V K. 2019. Effect of conservation agriculture on soil fertility in maize (Zea mays) based systems. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89(10): 1654–59.

Crusciol C A, M K and Wang J. 2016. Macronutrient uptake and removal by upland rice cultivars with different plant architecture. Revista Brasileria de Ciencia do Solo 40(1): 1–20.

Dey R K, Pramanik K, Saha T and Kundu C K. 2014. Growth, yield components and yield of hybrid rice as influenced by nitrogen levels and time of Homo-Brassinolide application. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology 7(4): 817–24.

Dobermann A, Witt C, Abdulrachman S, Gines H C, Nagarajan R, Son T T and Simbahan G C. 2002. Site-specific nutrient management for intensive rice cropping systems in Asia. Field Crops Research 74(1): 37–66.

Fageria N K. 2014. Yield and yield components and phosphorus use efficiency of lowland rice genotypes. Journal of plant nutrition 37(7): 979–89.

Garg K, Dhar S and Jinger D. 2020. Silicon nutrition in rice (Oryza sativa L.)–A review. Annals of Agriculture Research 41: 221–29.

Guo Zhao Hui, Li He Song, Zhang, Yang Zhu, Huang, Jian liang, Huang and Chan Yong. 2012. Effects of phosphorous levels on rice growth and characteristics of phosphorus transportation. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 16(2): 151–56.

Harish M N, Choudhary A K, Kumar S, Dass A, Singh V K, Sharma V K and George S. 2022. Double zero tillage and foliar phosphorus fertilization coupled with microbial inoculants enhance maize productivity and quality in a maize–wheat rotation. Scientific Reports 12(1): 3161.

Hoang M T, Nguyen H H and Lun N Q. 2015. Study on the effect of some NPK fertilizer compounds on the yield and quality of Bp53 Rice variety. Journal of Agricultural Technology 11(8): 2149–56.

Jana K, Mallick G K, Das S K, Biswas B, Kundu M K, Koireng R J and Puste A M. 2017. Evaluation of potential rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes with different levels of N under rainfed shallow lowland situation. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science 2(3): 202–05.

Javeed A, Gupta M, Choudhary K and Bazgalia K. 2018. Effect of graded levels of N, P & K on yield and nutrient uptake of fine rice (Oryza sativa L.) under sub-tropical conditions. International Journal Modern Agriculture 6(5): 2420–23.

Joshi B, Mishra S, Prinsa D K and Guru S K. 2019. Effect of differential nutrient management on growth and yield components in late sown rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(5): 1891–99.

Kamal MA, Rasool F, Zohaib A, Ahmed K and Nawaz M. 2015. Growth response of rice to different levels of NPK. International Journal of Modern Agriculture 4: 52–56.

Khan P, Imtiaz M, Aslam M, Memon M Y, Suleman M and Baby A. 2013. Studies on the nutritional requirements of candidate rice genotype IR6-25/A evolved at NIA, Tando Jam. Soil and Environment 27(2): 202–07.

Kharel L, Ghimire S K, Shrestha J, Kunwar C B and Sharma S. 2018. Evaluation of rice genotypes for its response to added fertility levels and induced drought tolerance during reproductive phase. Journal of AgriSearch 5(1): 13–18.

Kumar A, Sen A, Kumar R and Upadhyay P K. 2016. Effect of zinc, iron and manganese levels on growth attributes and grain yield of rice. Ecology Environment and Conservation 22(2): 729–34.

Kumar N, Kumar S, Sravan U S and Singh S P. 2017. Growth and yield performance of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by bio-organics and fertility levels. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(5): 2131–36.

Kumar R, Kumar M, Kumar A and Pandey A. 2015. Productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake and soil health as influenced by establishment methods and nutrient management practices in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa) under hill ecosystem of North East India. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 85(5): 634–39.

Kumar R, Mishra J S, Kumar S, Hans H, Bhatt B P, Srivastava A K and Singh S. 2019. Production potential, economics and energetics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes as influenced by varying levels of nitrogen. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89(11): 1846–49.

Kumar R, Mishra J S, Kumar S, Bhatt B P, Srivastava A K and Singh S. 2020. Effect of varying levels of nitrogen on production, economics and energy-use efficiency of direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under upland rainfed ecosystem of Bihar. Indian Journal of Agronomy 65(2): 185–91.

Kumar S, Srinivasa G, Raju M and Kumar M R. 2014. Growth characteristics, yield attributes, grain yield and quality of rice hybrids as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Programme Agriculture 14(1): 125–29.

Kumar S, Kour S, Gupta M, Kachroo D and Singh H. 2017. Influence of rice varieties and fertility levels on performance of rice and soil nutrient status under aerobic conditions. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 9(2): 1164–69.

Kumar S, Kumar R, Mishra J S, Dwivedi S K, Prakash V, Rao K K, Singh, A K, Bhatt B P, Singh S S, Haris A A, Kumar V, Srivastava A K, Singh S and Yadav A. 2018. Productivity and profitability of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes as influenced by crop management practices under middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Indian Journal of Agronomy 63(1): 45–9.

Kumar S, Kour S, Gupta M and Choudhary K. 2018. Balance sheet of soil nutrients as influenced by soil fertility levels in different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 17(2): 154–59.

Mahala D M, Meena M C, Dwivedi B S, Datta S P, Dey A, Das D, Parihar C M, Yadav R K, Chaudhary A, Jat R K, Choudhary K M, Gathala M K and Jat M L. 2023. Changes in soil organic carbon pools after 15 years of conservation agriculture in rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system of eastern Indo-Gangetic plains. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 93(6): 653–58.

Marschner P. 2012. Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 3rd edn. Academic Press, London.

Masni Z and Wasli M E. 2019. Yield performance and nutrient uptake of red rice variety (MRM 16) at different NPK fertilizer rates. International Journal of Agronomy 89: 97–85.

Metwally T F, Gewaily E E and Naeem S S. 2011. Nitrogen response curve and nitrogen use efficiency of egyptian rice. Journal of Agricultural Research. 37: 73–84.

Mondal S, Bauri A, Pramanik K, Ghosh M, Malik G C and Ghosh D C. 2013. Growth, productivity and economics of rice as influenced by fertility level and plant density. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management 4(4): 547–54.

Mukamuhirwa A, PerssonHovmalm H, Ortiz R, Nyamangyoku O and Johansson E. 2018. Quality and grain yield attributes of Rwandan rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in a biotron applying two NPK levels. Journal of Food Quality 11: 23–29.

Murthy K D, Rao A U, Vijay D and Sridhar T V. 2015. Effect of levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on performance of rice genotypes. Indian Journal of Agriculture Research 49(1): 83–87.

Nanda G, Singh A and Singh S P. 2017. Nutrient removal and economics of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by

NPK levels and bio-organics. Trends in Biosciences 10(2): 618–21.

Nath S, Rajput R K, Kumar V and Singh Y. 2018. Effect of fertilization and varieties on yield and nutrient uptake of hybrid rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(2): 2092–93.

Paramasivan M J G and Kumar N S. 2018. Effect of levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on productivity, nutrient uptake and soil fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an Alfisols of Tambiraparani tract. Indian Journal of Agronomy 63(1): 50–54.

Pramanik K and Bera A K. 2013. Effect of seedling age and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, chlorophyll content, yield and economics of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L). International Journal Agronomy and Plant Production 4: 3489–99.

Rowland J H, Cisar J L, Synder G H, Sartain J B, Wright A L and Erickson J E. 2010. Optimal nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates for establishment of warm season putting greens. Agronomy Journal 102(6): 1601–05.

Sahu R, Kumar D, Sohane R, Kumar R, Kumar A, Mandal S K, Prasad M and Sahu J. 2023. Crop establishment and nutrient management for production sustainability in rice (Oryza sativa)- wheat (Triticum aestivum) system in eastern India. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 93(10): 1114–19.

Samartha G S, Chandra S, Chandra H and Singh V. 2019. Effect of drip irrigation and fertigation levels on nutrient uptake in direct seeded scented rice. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(4): 1999–2001.

Sampath O, Srinivas A, Ramprakash T and Avil Kumar K. 2017. Nutrient uptake of rice varieties as influenced by combination of plant density and fertilizer levels under late sown conditions. International Journal Current Microbiology Applied Science 6(6): 1346–48.

Singh A, Singh Y, Singh R, Upadhyay P K and Kumar R. 2019. Effect of cultivars and weed management practices on weeds, productivity and profitability in ZT direct seeded rice. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89(2): 353–59.

Singh K, Singh S R, Singh J K, Rathore R S, Singh S P and Roy R. 2013. Effect of age of seedling and spacing on yield, economics, soil health and digestibility of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under system of rice intensification. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83(5): 479–83.

Singh S K, Abraham T, Kumar R and Kumar R. 2017. Response of crop establishment methods and split application of nitrogen on productivity of rice under irrigated ecosystem. Environment and Ecology 35(2A): 859–62.

Srivastava V K, Singh J K, Bohra J S and Singh S P. 2014. Effect of fertilizer levels and organic sources of nitrogen on production potential of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soil properties under system of rice intensification. Indian Journal of Agronomy 59(4): 607– 12.

Vanija S, Sudhir Kamath K V, Rajath H P and Hanumathappa M. 2019. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and potassium on mechanised rice. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(1): 1563–65.

Verma P, Singh Y V, Choudhary A K and Das A. 2018. Influence of nutrient-management practices and microbial inoculants on productivity and profitability of lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Eastern Himalayas. Indian Journal of Agronomy 63(3): 377–99.

Verma P, Singh Y V, Supriya S S, Kumar V, Yaying M, Choudhary L and Kumar B. 2023. Effect of nutrient management practices

on nitrogen, phosphorus and yield of lowland rice in Eastern Himalayan region. Ecology Environment and Conservation 29: 352–57.

Wang L and Schjoerring K J. 2012. Seasonal variation in nitrogen pools and 15N/13C natural abundances in different tissues of grassland plans. Biogeoscience 9: 1583–95.

Watanabe K, Niino T, Murayama T and Nanzyo M. 2014. Promotive effect of pre-transplanting phosphorus application on the early growth of rice. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 76(2): 181–88.

Yogi A K, Bana R S, Bamboriya S D, Choudhary R L, Laing A M, Singh D, Godara S, Babu S and Chaudhary A. 2023. Foliar zinc fertilization improves yield, biofortification and nutrient-use efficiency of upland rice. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 125(3): 453–69.








Review Article

How to Cite

SUPRIYA, KUMAR, R. ., VERMA, P. ., CHAUDHARY, A. ., S, S. ., GARG, K. ., & PATEL, S. . (2024). Agronomic assessment of rice genotypes (Oryza sativa) under different levels of fertilizer application: A review. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 94(1), 003–009.