Preliminary investigations on antimicrobial, antioxidant and nutritional properties of freshwater snail Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833)
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Bioactive and nutritional properties of freshwater snail
The present study aimed to evaluate the bioactive properties of freshwater snail Brotia costula (Rafinesque, 1833) meat along with its nutritional and functional properties. The soft tissue of B. costula had excellent nutritional properties as reflected in the high protein (13.83%), carbohydrate (10.70%) and polyunsaturated fattyacid (PUFA) content (37.7% of total fatty acid) of the meat. Among protein fractions, the major fraction was myofibrillar (51.40%) followed by sarcoplasmic (23.86%), stroma (17.89%) and alkali-soluble protein fractions (11.67%), whilst high non-protein nitrogen (27.23%) was also observed. To assess the bioactive properties, snail meat was extracted in three different solvents viz. 100% ethanol (l00EE), 50% ethanol (50EE) and 100% water (10WE). Among the three solvent extracts, 100% ethanol extract (100EE) showed excellent antioxidative properties as confirmed by four different antioxidant assays. The FTIR spectral analysis revealed strong absorbance for functional groups (phenol and carbonyl) in 100 EE tissue extract. The 100 EE showed maximum inhibition against spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas putida, 21.3 mm) than pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, 11.6 mm). Overall, it can be concluded that B. costula may be used as a good nutritional source and a potent natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food and feed preparations.
Keyword: Antioxidant activity, Antibacterial activity, Cholesterol, Freshwater snail, FTIR