Off-season survival of the sapodilla seed borer, Trymalitis margarias in India- a clue for an effective cultural management strategy
Keywords:Sapodilla, Manilkara achras, seed borer, Trymalitis margarias, off-season, monitoring, cultural management
AbstractSapodilla seed borer, Trymalitis margarias, is causing huge losses to farmers in India. The concealed nature ofÂ larvae within the seeds renders the management of this pest a challenge. The sparse and continuous fl owering habitÂ of sapodilla (Manilkara achras) plants after main cropping period makes the survival of this monophagous pestÂ easier during off-season. A continuous monitoring during off-season showed that the stray sapodilla fruits wereÂ serving as a potential source of infestation for tortricid seed borer, T. margarias. Correlation analysis between theÂ off-season and main cropping season T. margarias incidence exhibited a signifi cant (P < 0.01) positive correlationÂ (r = 0.85**) with the mean infestation of 19.40% and 23.16%, respectively. Further, a pooled (data over fi ve years)Â linear regression model showed that variability in the seed borer infestation during main-season can be explainedÂ to the tune of 71% through stray fruits alone. Multiple infestations (1-4 exit holes/fruit) were found to be commonÂ during off season compared to regular season (1-2 exit holes/fruit). Removal of stray fruits during off-seasonÂ reduced the seed borer incidence in the subsequent main crop.
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