On-the-tree fruit bagging: A safe approach for production of quality fruits

Abstract views: 278 / PDF downloads: 81


  • R R SHARMA ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
  • SHRUTI SETHI ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
  • RAM ASREY ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
  • V R SAGAR ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
  • CHANDER BHAN ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India



Bagging, Pre-harvest


During production, fruits undergo several changes. Fruits are also infested by several insect-pests, diseases and birds which reduce their commercial value and thereby cause a significant reduction in yield, quality and returns. To prevent such losses, scientists have developed several good agricultural practices (GAP) which have become quite popular globally for the production of high quality fruits. Among such practices, on-the-tree fruit bagging has emerged as one of the most effective approaches world-wide recently. In this technique, individual fruit or fruit bunch is covered by a bag while attached to the tree. On-the-tree fruit bagging technique has been reported to have several beneficial effects on fruit colour, texture, incidence of several insect-pests, diseases and quality, as a result, it has become an integral part of production technology of apple, pear, peach, grape and loquat in several developed countries. The desirable benefits of fruit bagging may be due to the type of bag used, date and duration of bagging, the stage of fruit development, the duration of fruit exposure to natural light following bag removal, and/or fruit- and cultivar-specific responses. On-the-tree fruit bagging is a simple, grower and eco-friendly approach which has become an integral part of organic fruit production in some parts of the world yet it has to be popularized in India.


Download data is not yet available.


Amarante C, Banks N H and Max S. 2002. Effect of on-the-tree bagging on fruit quality and postharvest physiology of pears (Pyrus communis). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 30: 99–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2002.9514204

Bagle B G. 2011. Studies on varietal reaction, extent of damage and management of Anar butterfly, Deudorix isocrates in pomegranate. Acta Horticulturae 890: 557–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.890.78

Bilck A P, Roberto S R, Grossmann M V E and Yamashita F. 2011. Efficacy of some biodegradable films as pre-harvest covering material for guava. Scientia Horticulturae 130(1): 341–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.06.011

Chonhenchob V, Kamhangwong D, Kruenate J, Khongrat K, Tangchantra N, Wichai U and Singh S P. 2011. Pre-harvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91: 664–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4231

Debnath S and Mitra S K. 2008. Panicle bagging for maturity regulation, quality improvement and fruit borer management in litchi (Litchi chinensis). Acta Horticulturae 773: 201–08. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.773.29

Farzaneh F H, Moradinezhad F and Khayyat M. 2019. Pre-harvest bagging influences sunburn, cracking and quality of pomegranate fruits. Journal of Horticulture and Postharvest Research 2(2):131–42.

Haldankar P M, Parulekar Y R, Kireeti A, Kad M S, Shinde S M and Lawande K E. 2015. Studies on influence of bagging of fruits at marble stage on quality of mango cv. Alphonso. Journal of Plant Studies 4(1): 12–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v4n2p12

Ju Z. 1998. Fruit bagging, a useful method for studying anthocyanin synthesis and gene expression in apples. Scientia Horticulturae 77(3–4): 155–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00161-7

Karanjalker G R, Ravishankar K V, Shivashankara K S and Dinesh M R. 2018. Influence of bagging on color, anthocyanin and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in peel of red colored mango cv. Lily. Erwerbs-Obstbau 60: 281–87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-018-0371-0

Kassem H A, Omar A K H and Ahmed M A. 2011. Response of ‘Zaghloul’ date palm productivity, ripening and quality to different polyethylene bagging treatments. American– Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 11: 616–21.

Kim Y H, Kim H H, Youn C K, Kweon S J, Jung H J and Lee C H. 2008. Effects of bagging material on fruit coloration andquality of Janghowon Hwangdo peach. Acta Horticulturae 772: 81–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.772.9

Kitagawa H, Manabe K and Esguerra E B. 1992. Bagging of fruit on the tree to control disease. Acta Horticulturae 321: 871–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1992.321.110

Ko Y, Liu C W, Chen S S, Chen C Y, Yao K S, Maruthasalam S and Lin C H. 2010. First report of fruit rot of loquat caused by an Alternaria sp. in Taiwan. Plant Disease 94(4): 481–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0481B

Lin J, Chang Y, Yan Z and Li X. 2008. Effects of bagging on the quality of pear fruit and pesticide residues. Acta Horticulturae 7 72: 315–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.772.52

Mathooko F M, Kahangi E M, Runkuab J M, Onyangob C A and Owinob W O. 2011. On-the-tree mango (Mangifera indica L., cv. Apple) fruit bagging controls lenticel discoloration and improves postharvest quality. Acta Horticulturae 906: 55–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.906.7

Matsumoto K, Kobayashi T, Kougo T, Fujita T, Sato S and Moriguchi T. 2018. Prevention of new cork spot-like physiological disorder in Kurenainoyume apples by pre-harvest fruit bagging. Horticultural Journal 87(2): 174–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2503/hortj.OKD-117

Rosângela T, Amarante C V T D, Boff M I C and Ribeiro L G. 2011. Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'Imperial Gala' apples submitted to bagging. Brazilian Magazine of Fruit Culture 33(2): 394–401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011005000066

Santosh D T, Tiwari K N and Reddy R G. 2017. Banana bunch covers for quality banana production – a review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 6: 1275–91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.607.155

Sarker D, Rahman M M and Barman J C. 2009. Efficacy of different bagging materials for the control of mango fruit fly. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 34: 165–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v34i1.5766

Sharma R R and Nagaraja A. 2016. Bagging guava fruits to reduce fruitfly incidence. ICAR News 22(2): 3–4.

Sharma R R, Nagaraja A, Goswami A, Thakre M, Kumar R and Varghese E. 2020. Influence of on-the-tree fruit bagging on biotic stresses and postharvest quality of rainy-season crop of ‘Allahabad Safeda’ guava (Psidium guajava L.). Crop Protection 135: 105–216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2020.105216

Sharma R R, Pal R K, Asrey R, Sagar V R, Dhiman M R and Rana M R. 2013.On-the-tree fruit bagging influences fruit color and quality of apple cv. Delicious. Agricultural Science 4(9): 443–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2013.49059

Sharma R R, Pal R K, Sagar V R, Parmanick K K, Paul V, Gupta V K, Kumar K and Rana M R. 2014a. Impact of on-the-tree fruit-bagging with different coloured bags on peel colour and incidence of insect pests, disease and storage disorders in Royal Delicious apple. Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 89(6): 613–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2014.11513128

Sharma R R, Reddy V R and Jhalegar M J. 2014b. On-the-tree Pre-harvest fruit bagging: a useful approach for plant protection and improved post-harvest fruit quality – a review. Journal of Horticultural Science Biotechnology 89(2): 101–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2014.11513055

Sharma R R, Singh D and Singh R. 2009. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables by microbial antagonists. Biological Control 50: 205–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.001

Singh R K, Shah N I and Solanki P D. 2017. Influence of fruit bagging on chemical quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 18(3): 1–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33987

Wang X Q, Wei Z W and Ma F W. 2015. The effects of fruit bagging on levels of phenolic compounds and expression by anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in red-fleshed apples. Process Biochemistry 50: 1774–82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2015.06.024

Wang X, Hang B and Liu C. 2010. Distribution of calcium in bagged apple fruit and relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity and bitter pit. Agricultural Science and Technology11(1): 82–85.

Wang Y T, Li X, Li Y, Li L L and Zhang S L. 2011. Effects of bagging on browning spot incidence and content of different forms of calcium in ‘Huangguan’ pear fruits. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 38: 1507–14.

Wu H X, Wang S B, Ma X W, Ma W H, Zhan R L, Yao Q S, Wang S B, Ma X W, Ma W H, Zhan R L and Yao Q S. 2013. Effect of bagging on fruit quality in mango. Acta Horticulturae 992: 587–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.992.73

Xu C X, Chen H B, Huang R Y and He Y J. 2008. Effects of bagging on fruit growth and quality of carambola. Acta Horticulturae 773: 195–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.773.28

Xu H X, Chen J W and Xie M. 2010. Effect of different light transmittance paper bags on fruit quality and antioxidant capacity in loquat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90 (11): 1783–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4012

Yang W H, Zhu X C, Bu J H, Hu G B, Wang H C and Huang X M. 2009. Effects of bagging on fruit development and quality in cross-winter off-season longan. Scientia Horticulturae 120: 194–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.10.009

Zha Q, Xi X J, He Y and Jiang A L. 2019. Bagging affecting sugar and anthocyanin metabolism in the ripening period of grape berries. Notulae Botanicae HortiA grobotanici Cluj-Napoca 47(4): 1194–205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47411577

Zhou H, Yu Z and Ye Z. 2019. Effect of bagging duration on peach fruit peel color and key protein changes based on iTRAQ quantitation. Scientia Horticulturae 246: 217–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.072








Review Article

How to Cite

SHARMA, R. R., SETHI, S., ASREY, R., SAGAR, V. R., & BHAN, C. (2021). On-the-tree fruit bagging: A safe approach for production of quality fruits. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 91(1), 03–07. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijas.v91i1.110896