Impact of improved varieties on farmers income: Insight from lower Shivalik hills

Abstract views: 320 / PDF downloads: 66


  • PINAKI ROY ICAR-Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan-2, New Delhi 110 012, India
  • B S HANSRA Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
  • R ROY BURMAN ICAR-Indian Council of Agricultural Research
  • T N ROY Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya
  • SANGEETA BHATTACHARYYA ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute
  • PRABHAT KUMAR ICAR-Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Benefit-cost ratio (BCR), Box plot technique, Impact on productivity, Kernal density, Net return (NR)


High yielding varieties of cereal crops were the major contributors to India's Green Revolution in 1960s and till date these varieties have been largely contributing to India's bread basket. Uttarakhand is primarily an agricultural state although its share in the country's total area and production is negligible. In this paper the authors have attempted to measure the technical and economic efficiencies of improved varieties of paddy and wheat in lower Shivalik hills of Uttarakhand during 2017-20. Uttarakhand is primarily an agricultural state although its share in the country's total area and production is negligible. Economic efficiencies of the varieties were measured by benefit-cost ratio (BCR) andnet return (NR). Technical efficiencies were measured by Box plot technique in R software. Kernal density plot was used to represent yield variation among the varieties. The findings revealed that PB 1121 paddy and HD 2967 wheat respectively were the best varieties in terms of technical efficiency (productivity) and economic efficiency (BCR andNet Return). Estimates of t-test also show the significant differences in BCR and net return between improved and local varieties. Thus, study shows that the positive impacts of improved varieties of the major crops have significantly contributed to productivity, farm income and livelihood in the lower Shivalik hills of Uttarakhand which, in turn, mayprovide prospective implications towards country's total production and food security.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahirwar R F, Verma A K and Shekhawat L S 2015. Cost and income structure of wheat cultivation in vindhyan plateau of Madhya Pradesh. Economic Affairs 60(1). 4666.2015.00011.x. DOI:

Anonymous. 2011. Uttarakhand: The State Profile, PHD Research Bureau, PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, New Delhi.

Arora R K, Sharma P K, Kumar P, Singh R and Chahal V P. 2019. Evaluation of recommended maize production technology in kandi areas under Farmer FIRST programme. Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development 14(1): 131–36.

Awotide B A, Taiwo T A, Omonona B T and Diagne A. 2016. Impact of improved agricultural technology adoption on sustainable rice productivity and rural farmers’ welfare in Nigeria.Inclusive Growth in Africa: Policies, Practice, and Lessons Learnt. 216–37. DOI:

Department of Agriculture Cooperation&Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW). 2019. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare, Government of India.

Mohamed H S, Abdalla S and Sassi C. 2014. Impact Assessment of Improved Wheat Production Package in Sudan. NAF International Working Paper Series 1–12.

National Food Security Mission. 2019. Government of India.https://

Roy P, Hansra B S, Burman R R, Roy T N and Kumar P. 2020. Adoption intensity and efficiency of improved technologies in Lower Shivalik Hills. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 90(4): 828–31.

Roy P, Hansra B S and Burman R R. 2020 Determinants and income generation from improved varieties in Lower Shivalik Range of Uttarakhand, India. Plant Archives 20.

Roy P, Burman R R and Sharma J P. 2016. Problems and Prospect of Agriculture in Lower Shivalik Range of Uttarakhand for Ensuring Sustainable Livelihood Security.Compendium International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation and Biodiversity Ecological Sustainability and Resource Management for Livelihood Security (ASA: ICCB-2016): 101-102.

Verma A K, Ahirwar R F and Thakur U S. 2016. Cost of cultivation and resource use efficiency of major rabi crops in Vidisha District of Madhya Pradesh. Economic Affairs 61(2): 231. DOI:

Watershed Management Directorate. 2008. Uttarakhand State Perspective Strategic Plan 2009-27. Government of Uttarakhand, Dehradun.

Yadav R P, Panwar P, Arya S L and Mishra P K. 2015. Revisit of Shivalik region in different states of north-western India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 86(3): 351–60. DOI:









How to Cite

ROY, P., HANSRA, B. S., BURMAN, R. R., ROY, T. N., BHATTACHARYYA, S., & KUMAR, P. (2021). Impact of improved varieties on farmers income: Insight from lower Shivalik hills. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 91(11), 1612–1616.