Identification of secondary metabolites produced by fluorescent Pseudomonads for controlling fungal pathogens of apple
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Keywords:Antagonism, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, metabolites, phenazine, Pseudomonas sp., pyrrolnitrin
AbstractAntibiosis is often implicated as an important mechanism of biological control and can be used for the suppression of many phytopathogens. Fluorescent Pseudomonas species viz., P. putida, P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa isolated from apple rhizosphere were tested for their antifungal activity against Dematophora necatrix, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora cactorum and Pythium ultimum. P. putida and P. aeruginosa inhibited the mycelia growth of all the four pathogens in dual culture tests (8.3-19.3 %I) while P. fluorescens inhibited growth of three pathogens viz., D. necatrix, F. oxysporum and P. ultimum (8.5-16.6 %I). In the present study three antifungal metabolites viz., phenazine, pyrrolnitrin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol produced by P. putida, P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa were isolated from apple rhizosphere using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The Rf value obtained by the ethyl acetate extracted metabolite of all the three Pseudomonas species ranged from 0.6 to 0.82 which is in accordance to the spot showed by standards. These extracted compounds were re-tested for antifungal activity against P. ultimum which showed inhibition in the range of 15.7 to 28.9 %. The results indicated that fluorescent Pseudomonas species used in this study produced a combination of diverse antifungal compounds and provided resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens.
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