Indo-Sri Lanka Fishing Conflict in the Palk Bay and its Implications for Fisheries


Abstract views: 443 / PDF downloads: 124

Authors

  • K. H. M. L. AMARALAL National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Colombo - 01500, Sri Lanka
  • N. ABEYKOON Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna, Matara - 81000, Sri Lanka
  • K. H. M. ASHOKA DEEPANANDA Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna, Matara - 81000, Sri Lanka

https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.110627

Keywords:

Conflict resolution, Fisher livelihoods, Fishing disputes, Palk Bay fishery, Transboundary fishing, Trawling

Abstract

The Palk Bay constitutes exceptionally rich fishing grounds for the fishers of India and Sri Lanka. In the recent past, dispute between Indian and Sri Lankan fishers has emerged in exploiting fisheries resources, posing serious threats to the livelihoods of thousands of fishery dependents in the two countries. Present study comprehensively explores all aspects of Indo-Sri Lanka fishing conflict, reviewing articles published during 1995-2018. Twenty-five articles that addressed the Palk Bay fishing conflict were obtained, using a systematic search strategy. The present study unfolds that fishers were engaged in fishing activities in Palk Bay, using different craft and gear combinations over many decades. Conspicuously, several factors are influential for the emergence and escalation of Indo-Sri Lanka fishing conflict, including; (1) establishment of International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL); (2) introduction of mechanized trawls by Indian fishers in 1960s with the expansion of the export market demand for shrimp; (3) imposition of fishing ban by Sri Lankan government during civil war during 1983-2009; (4) recommencement of distant water fisheries in the Palk Bay by Sri Lankan fishers with the conclusion of civil war in 2009, and (5) damage to fishing crafts and gears of artisanal fishers. Moreover, the study elucidates that Indo-Sri Lanka fishing conflict has a detrimental impact on the fisheries industry, livelihoods of the fishers, economy and political stability of India and Sri Lanka. Furthermore, the fishing conflict has caused many negative impacts including depletion of fishery resources, increase in enforcement cost, reduction of foreign exchange earnings, arresting fishers, presence of illegal trading and smuggling of arms and ammunition. Several measures have been taken by Indian and Sri Lankan Governments to resolve the fishing conflict. Albeit, they have yet to come to a common agreement to find an amicable long-lasting solution, vital for moving forward the industry in a sustainable manner.

Author Biographies

  • K. H. M. L. AMARALAL, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Colombo - 01500, Sri Lanka
    Professor of Fisheries Biology (Chair)
  • N. ABEYKOON, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna, Matara - 81000, Sri Lanka
    Principal Scientists
  • K. H. M. ASHOKA DEEPANANDA, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna, Matara - 81000, Sri Lanka
    Scientist

References

Amarasinghe, O. (2011). Fisheries Conflicts in Palk Bay: is there a way out? From a Sri Lankan view point. A working document. WOTRO funded project, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.

Bavinck, M. (2001). Marine Resource Management: Conflict and Regulation in the Fisheries of the Coromandel Coast, Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, USA. pp 394

Beddington, J. R., Agnew, D. J. and Clark, C. W. (2007). Current problems in the management of marine ï¬sheries. Science 316:1713–1716

Berkes, F. (1985) “Fishermen and ‘The Tragedy of the Commons,’†Environmental Conservation. Cambridge University Press, 12(3), pp 199–206.

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) (2010). Marine Fisheries Census for India 2010. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, India. (online). [Accessed on 03.03.2019]. Available at (http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/id/eprint/8998)

Deepananda, K.H.M.A., U.S. Amarasinghe and U.K. Jayasinghe-Mudalige (2015). Indigenous knowledge in the beach seine fisheries in Sri Lanka: An indispensable factor in community-based fisheries management. Marine Policy 57: 69–77.

Department of Economics and Statistics. (2015). Statistical hand book 2015, Department of Economics and Statistics Government of Tamil Nadu. (online). [Accessed on 03.02.2019]. Available at (http://www.tn.gov.in/deptst/stat.htm).

FAO (2014), The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. pp 243.

Hettiarachchi, A. (2007). Fisheries in the Palk Bay Region: The Indian Factor. Journal of National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency 38: 01-15.

Kasim, H. M. (2015). Resources and livelihoods of the Palk Bay: Information from India & Sri Lanka. International Academic Workshop on Resources Conservation and Alternate Livelihood Opportunities in Coastal Tamil Nadu, Chennai. (online). [Accessed on 20.01.2019]. Available at (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281198322).

Kumaraguru, A.K., Joseph, V. E., Rajee, M. and Blasubramanian, T. (2008.) Palk Bay - Information and Bibliography, CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai and Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai. pp. 227.

Kumarathunga, C. B. (2001). Regulations made under the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act, No. 48 of 1979. The Gazette Extraordinary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, No. 1193/31 of 21.07.2001. Government Publications Bureau, Colombo: p.4A.

Macusi, E. D., Katikiro, R. E., Deepananda, K. H. M. A., Jimenez, L. A., Conte, A. R. and Fadli, N. (2011). Human induced degradation of coastal resources in asia pacific and implications on management and food security. Journal of Nature Studies 9(2)/10(1): 13-28.

Madanayaka, S. A. K. (2015). Illegal fishing issues as a non-traditional security treat to Sri Lanka (with reference to India). Proceedings of 8th International Research Conference, KDU. pp 72-78.

Marapana, T. (2002). Regulation made under Section 27 of the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions Act, No. 48 of 1979. The Gazette Extraordinary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, No. 1231/30 of 01.02.2002. Government Publications Bureau, Colombo. pp.1A.

Mayilvaganan, M. (2016). Fishing Conflicts in the Palk Bay: Are the Indian Fishermen ‘Carefully Careless’?. National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), India. (online). [Accessed on 14.01.2019]. Available at (http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/easing-tensions-in-the-palk-bay/article5583217.ece).

Menon, A., Bavink, M., Stephen, J. and Manimohan, R. (2015). The Political Ecology of Palk Bay Fisheries: Geographies of Capital, Fisher Conflict, Ethnicity and Nation-State. Antipode Foundation Ltd. pp. 1-19. (doi: 10.1111/anti.12181)

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development (MFARD) (2011). Fisheries Statistics 2010. (online). [Accessed on 06.02.2019]. Available at (http://www.ï¬sheries.gov.lk/statis tics.html).

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development (MFARD) (2015). Annual Report -2015. Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development. Maligawatta, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka.

Moses, K. (2011). Tamil Nadu Illegal Fishermen in Lankan Waters (online). [Accessed on 03.02.2019]. Available at (http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2011/08/26/tamil-nadu-illegal -fishermen-in-lankan-waters-could-bepoaching-95000mt-fish-valued-over-us750-millionannuall y/).

Prescott, J., Vogel, C., Pollock, K., Hyson, S., Oktaviani, D. and Panggabean, A. S. (2013). Estimating sea cucumber abundance and exploitation rates using removal methods. Mar. Freshw. Res. 64 (7): 599–608.

Ratwatte, C. (2011). Fishy happening in Palk Bay. (online). [Accessed on 06.02.2019]. Available at (http://www.ft.lk/article/28087/Fishy-happenings-in-Palk-Bay)

Sathiyamoorthy, N. (2014). Sri Lanka: Moving Away from Bottom-Trawling Still the Way Out for TN? Observer Research Foundation. (online). [Accessed on 05.03.2019]. Available at (www.orfonllin.org).

Scholtens, J., Bavinck, M. and Soosai, S. A. (2012). Fishing in Dire Straits, Transboundary Incursions in Palk Bay, Economic and Political Weekly, 47(25): 87–96.

Sivasubramaniam, K. (1995). Sri Lanka’s Fisheries Resources, Development and Management in the past. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Towards a New Era in Fisheries Development, Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Songa, A. M., Scholtens, J., Stephend, J., Bavinck, M. and Chuenpagdee, R. (2017). Transboundary research in fisheries. Marine Policy 76: 8–18.

Soosai, A.S. (2011). An overview of Northern Prince Fisheries: Features, methods and challenges. Presentation at early recovery coordination meeting UNDP, 24 February 2011.

Stephen, J., Menon, A., Scholtens, J. and Bavinck, M. (2013a). Transboundary dialogues and the “politics of scale†in Palk Bay Fisheries: Brothers at sea? South Asia Research. 33(2):141–161.

Stephen, J., Menon, A. and Scholtens, J. (2013b). Transboundary Dialogues and the “Politics of Scale†in Palk Bay Fisheries: Brothers at Sea? South Asia Research. 33:141.

Stephen, J. and Menon, A. (2016). Fluid territories: Rethinking state territorialisation in Palk Bay, South Asia, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2016.1239656.

Stobutzki, I. C., Silvestre, G.T. and Garces, L.R. (2006). Key issues in coastal ï¬sheries in South and Southeast Asia, outcomes of a regional initiative. Fisheries Research 78: 109–118

Suryanarayan, V. (2016). The India-Sri Lanka Fisheries Dispute: Creating a Win-Win in the Palk Bay. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, India. (online). [Accessed on 28.02.2019]. Available at (http://carnegieendowment.org/files/Suryanaryanan_Fisheries_Dispute_.pdf).

Suryanarayan, V. and Swaminathan, R. (2009). Contested Territory or Common Heritage. Madras.Ganesh & Co publishers. pp 32

The Hindu. (2014). Editorial: Easing tensions in the Palk Bay. The Hindu. (online). [Accessed on 03.02.2019]. Available at (http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/easing-tensions-in-the-palk-bay/article5583217.ece).

Vivekanandan, V. (2001). Crossing Maritime Borders: The Problem and Solution in the Indo-Sri Lankan Context, Icsf and Ioi (eds) Forging Unity: Coastal Communities and the Indian Ocean's Future, Chennai. pp. 76-89.

Vivekanandan, V. (2004): “Fishing for a Favour, Netting a Lessonâ€, South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies, Trivandrum. pp 68.

Wijesinghe, H. C. D. (1977). Proclamation dated 15 January 1977 by His Excellency the President of Sri Lanka. Gazette of the Republic of Sri Lanka Extraordinary 248/1 of 15 January 1977. pp.1A-3A.

Downloads

Submitted

2021-02-18

Published

2021-11-16

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

AMARALAL, K. H. M. L., ABEYKOON, N., & DEEPANANDA, K. H. M. A. (2021). Indo-Sri Lanka Fishing Conflict in the Palk Bay and its Implications for Fisheries. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 39(2), 140-150. https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.110627
Citation