Threats to Fish Biodiversity in Bangladesh Waters and Measures for Revival of Declining Population


Abstract views: 316 / PDF downloads: 103

Authors

  • M. J. RAHMAN WorldFish Bangladesh, House 335/A, Road 114, Gulshan 2 Dhaka - 1212, Bangladesh http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4090-7339
  • M. NAHIDUZZAMAN WorldFish Bangladesh, House 335/A, Road 114, Gulshan 2 Dhaka - 1212, Bangladesh
  • M. A. WAHAB WorldFish Bangladesh, House 335/A, Road 114, Gulshan 2 Dhaka - 1212, Bangladesh

https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.111076

Keywords:

Catfish, Challenges, Co-management, Fish diversity, Hilsa, Livelihoods

Abstract

Bangladesh is rich in fish biodiversity covering interconnected riverine, coastal and marine habitats. Many researchers reported different potentials and threats of biodiversity and suggested measures to minimize the threats. Revival story of hilsa and relevant fish population revealed hopes and ways of sustainable biodiversity management. We attempted to compile the fragmentary fish biodiversity information, described the revival story of hilsa and other important fish along with the threats and challenges of the fish biodiversity and suggested measures for the sustainable management of fish biodiversity. Freshwater habitats are rich in biodiversity with 265 fresh water fish species. The Meghna River supports the highest 200 fish species as a single river. The marine habitat covers an area of 118,813 km2 that produces 0.66 million tons of fish annually and owned 475 species in 1971, but recent exploration suggests the existence of 394 species. However, the species diversities are increasingly facing threats from direct and indirect anthropogenic activities including juvenile catch, overexploitation, creating obstructions in the migratory routes, pollutions and climate change. Hilsa, the most important species also severely faced these threats and as a result, the production declined to below 0.20 million tons in 2002-2003. Joint efforts of all stakeholders through incentive based co-management led to the hilsa fishery revival, and its production reached 0.533 million tons in 2019. Along with the hilsa, other interdependent species, especially four important catfish species (Pangasius pangasius, Sperata aor, Bagarius bagarius and Rita rita) have also revived remarkably. Following the lessons learned from the revival of fishery, several management measures focusing on juvenile conservation, protection of broodstock, harmful gear elimination, optimum exploitation, pollution control, incentive-based co-management, habitat protection, restoration and rehabilitation are suggested to ensure maximum sustainable productions and biodiversity conservation focusing on vulnerable and threatened species and improved livelihoods resilience of fishers through good governance.

Author Biography

  • M. J. RAHMAN, WorldFish Bangladesh, House 335/A, Road 114, Gulshan 2 Dhaka - 1212, Bangladesh

    Scientist- Fish Population Biology

    ECOFISH II Project, WorldFish Bangladesh

References

Ali, M.M., Ali, M.L., Rahman, M.J. and Wahab, M.A. (2020). Fish Biodiversity in the Andharmanik river sanctuary in Bangladesh. Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 2020, 78, 21-32. DOI:10.2478/cjf-2020-0003

Ali, M.M., Hossain, M.B., Minar, M.H., Rahman, S., Islam, M.S. (2014). Socio-Economic Aspects of the Fishermen of Lohalia River, Bangladesh. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 19, 2, 191-195.

Banglapedia (National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh) (2012). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Available at http://www.banglapedia.org. [Date accessed: 20 January 2021].

Barua, S., Karim, E. and Humayun, N.M. (2014). Present status and species composition of commercially Important finfish in landed trawl catch from Bangladesh marine waters. J. Pure Appl. Zool., 2(2): 150-159.

Bhandari, B.B. and Nakamura, R. (2016). The Bay of Bengal: A Forgotten Sea. The Proceeding of the Symposium on the Bay of Bengal, Yangoon, Myanmar, 4 February 2016. 49pp.

Bhuiyan, A.L. (1964). Fishes of Dacca. Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Dacca. 148pp.

Bhuiyan, A.S., Islam, M.N., Hossain, M.T. (1992). A checklist of the fishes of Rajshahi. Rajshahi University Studies, Part-B, 20, 287-306.

BOBLME (Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem). (2011). Country report on pollution in the BOBLME – Bangladesh. BOBLME-2011-Ecology-01. 56pp.

Dasgupta, S., Kamal, F.A., Khan, Z.H., Choudhury, S. and Nishat, A. (2014). River Salinity and Climate Change Evidence from Coastal Bangladesh. Policy Research Working Paper 6817, World Bank. 44pp.

Dewhurst-Richman, N., Mohammed, E.Y., Ali, M.L., Hassan, K., Wahab, M.A., Ahmed, Z.F., Islam, M.M., Bladon, A., Haldar, G.C., Ahmed, C.S., Majumder, M.K., Hossain, M.M., Rahman, A. and Hussain, B. (2016). Balancing carrots and sticks: incentives for sustainable Hilsa fishery management in Bangladesh. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

DoF (Department of Fisheries). (2019). Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics of Bangladesh, 2018-19. Fisheries Resources Survey System (FRSS), Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh: Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock. Volume 36: 135p.

Doha S. (1973). Fishes of the districts of Mymensingh and Tangail. Bangladesh J. Zool., 1, 1-10.

ECOFISH. (2020). Enhanced Coastal Fisheries in Bangladesh Project (ECOFISH): Completion Report. WorldFish. 69pp.

Fanning, L.P., Chowdhury, S.R., Uddin, M.S. and Al-Mamun, M.A (Eds. Uddin MS and Chowdhury SR). (2019). Marine fisheries survey reports and stock assessment 2019. Department of Fisheries, Government of Bangladesh. 224 pp.

Galib, S.M., Naser, S.M.A., Mohsin, A.B.M., Chaki, N., Fahad, M.F.H. (2013). Fish diversity of the River Choto Jamuna, Bangladesh: present status and conservation needs. International journal of biodiversity and conservation., 5, 6, 389-395.

Galib, S.M. (2015). Fish fauna of the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh: richness, threats and conservation needs. Journal of Fisheries 3(3): 285-292. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v3i3.2015.120

Habib, K.A., and Islam, M.J. (2020). An updated checklist of Marine Fishes of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Fish., 32(2): 357-367.

Haldar, G.C. and Ali, L. (2014). The cost of compensation: transaction and administration costs of Hilsa fish management in Bangladesh. International Institute for Environment and Development, Working Paper, London.

Hanif, M.A., Siddik, M.A.B., Chaklader, M.R., Nahar, A., Mahmud, S. (2015). Fish diversity in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh: present status, threats and conservation perspectives. Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 73, 148-161. doi.org/10.14798/73.4.848

Hoq, M.E., Haroon, A.K.Y. and Chakraborty, S.C. (2013). Marine Fisheries of Bangladesh: Prospect & Potentialities. Support to Sustainable Management of the BOBLME Project, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Bangladesh. 120 p.

Hossain, M.A.R. (2014). Habitat and fish diversity: Bangladesh perspective, pp 1-26. In: Wahab, M.A., Shah, M.S., Hossain, M.A.R., Barman, B.K. and Hoq, M.E. (eds.), Advances in Fisheries Research in Bangladesh: I. Proc. of 5th Fisheries Conference & Research Fair 2012. 18-19 January 2012, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Forum, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 246 p.

Hossain, M,S., Sarker, S., Rahman, M.Z., Rahman, M.M. (2014). Freshwater Fish Diversity at Greater Noakhali, Bangladesh. CMU J. Nat. Sci., 13, 2, 207-225.

Hussain, M.G., Failler, P., Karim, A.A. and Alam, M.K. (2017). Review on opportunities, constraints and challenges of blue economy development in Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries and Life Sciences, 2:45-57.

Hussain, M.M. (1971). The commercial fishes of the Bay of Bengal. Marine fisheries and oceanographic laboratory, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation, Fish Harbour, Chittagong. Project publication. No. 1. UNDP Project PAK. pp. 60.

Islam, M.M. and Shamsuddoha, M. (2018). Coastal and Marine Conservation Strategy for Bangladesh in the Context of Achieving Blue Growth and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Acta Scientific Agriculture 2.12 (2018): 170-182.

Islam, M.M., Aktar, R., Nahiduzzaman, M., Barman, B.K. and Wahab, M.A. (2018). Social considerations of large river sanctuaries: a case study from the Hilsa shad fishery in Bangladesh. Sustainability 10 (4):1254.

Islam, M.M., Essam, Y.M. and Ali, L. (2016). Economic incentives for sustainable Hilsa fishing in Bangladesh: an analysis of the legal and institutional framework. Marine Policy, 68:8–22.

Islam, M.M., Shamsuzzaman, M.M., Mozumder, M, M.H., Xiangmin, X., Ming, Y. and Jewel, M.A.S. (2017). Exploitation and conservation of coastal and marine fisheries in Bangladesh: do the fishery laws matter? Marine Policy, 76:143–151.

Lau, W.W.Y. (2013). Beyond carbon: conceptualizing payments for ecosystem services in blue forests on carbon and other marine and coastal ecosystem services. Ocean and Coastal Management 83:5–14.

Mohammed, E.Y. and Wahab, M.A. (2013). Direct economic incentives for sustainable fisheries management: the case of Hilsa conservation in Bangladesh. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Nagelkerken, I., Goldenberg, S.U., Ferreira, C.M., Russell, B.D., Connell, S.D. (2017). Species Interactions Drive Fish Biodiversity Loss in a High-CO2 World. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.023

NATP II. (2018). Sub-Project Completion Report on Study of the Climate Change Impact on Fisheries Resources and Fishersˊ Especially Women and Children in Selected Climate Hotspot Zone of Bangladesh Zone of Bangladesh. National Agricultural Technology Program-Phase II Project (NATP II), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate, Dhaka – 1215.

Porrasa, I., Mohammed, E.Y., Ali, L., Ali, M.S. and Hossain, M.B. (2017). Power, profits and payments for ecosystem services in Hilsa fisheries in Bangladesh: a value chain analysis. Marine Policy 84:60–68.

Rahman, A.K.M.A. (2005). Freshwater Fishes of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh. 394pp.

Rahman, M.J., Mazid, M.A., Zaher, M. and Haroon, A.K.Y. (2007). Catch Compositions of Marine Set-Bag-Net (MSBN) in Bangladesh waters. Bangladesh J. Zool., 35(1):115-129.

Rahman, M.J., Wahab, M.A., Amin, S.M.N., Nahiduzzaman, M. and Romano, N. (2018). Catch Trend and Stock Assessment of Hilsa, Tenualosa ilisha, Using Digital Image Measured Length-Frequency Data. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, 10: 386–401.

Rahman, M.J., Wahab, M.A., Nahiduzzaman, M., Haque, A.B.M.M and Cohen, P. (2020). Hilsa fishery management in Bangladesh. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 414 012018. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012018/pdf

Rahman, M.M., Rahman, M.B., Rithu, M.N.A., Hoque, M.S. (2016). Observation on selectivity of fishing gears and ichthyofaunal diversity in the Paira River of Southern Bangladesh. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4, 1, 95-100.

Rashid, S.M.A. (2019). Coastal Biodiversity – A Review. Report prepared for Long Term Monitoring Research and Analysis of Bangladesh Coastal Zone. 30pp.

Rizwan, A.A.M. (2018). List of Marine Fish Species in Bangladesh. WorldFish. 26pp.

Shamsuddoha, M. and Islam, M.M. (2016). Bangladesh National Conservation Strategy: Coastal and Marine Resources. Bangladesh Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forests and IUCN, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Siddiqui, K.U., Islam, M.A., Kabir, S.M.H., Ahmad, M., Ahmed, A.T.A., Rahman, A.K.A., Haque, E.U., Ahmed, Z.N.T., Begum, M.A., Hasan, M.K., Rahman, M.M. (Eds). (2007). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. Vol. 23. Freshwater Fishes. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 300pp.

Tacconi, L. (2012). Redefining payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics 73:29–36.

van Brakel, M.L, Nahiduzzaman, M., Haque, A.M., Mustafa, M.G., Rahman, M.J. and Wahab, M.A. (2018). Reimagining large-scale open-water fisheries governance through adaptive co-management in Hilsa shad sanctuaries. Ecology and Society, 23 (1):26.

Wahab, M.A. (2018). Enhanced Coastal Fisheries in Bangladesh (ECOFISH-Bangladesh). Annual Report Year 4 (October 2017–September 2018). ECOFISH-Bangladesh Project, WorldFish. 66pp.

Downloads

Submitted

2021-03-04

Published

2021-12-15

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

RAHMAN, M. J., NAHIDUZZAMAN, M., & WAHAB, M. A. (2021). Threats to Fish Biodiversity in Bangladesh Waters and Measures for Revival of Declining Population. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 39(2), 66-79. https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.111076
Citation