Emerging Information and Communication Technologies for Monitoring India’s Marine Small-Scale Fisheries, Opportunities for Inclusion, Risks of Exclusion


Abstract views: 801 / PDF downloads: 96

Authors

  • ALEXANDER TILLEY WorldFish, Bayan Lepas - 11960, Penang, Malaysia
  • ANDREW M. SONG Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW - 2007, Australia
  • AJIT MENON Madras Institute of Development Studies, Chennai - 600 020, India
  • PHILIPPA J. COHEN WorldFish, Bayan Lepas - 11960, Penang, Malaysia
  • MARIANNE MANUEL Dakshin Foundation, Bengaluru - 560 092, India

https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.112131

Keywords:

Apps, Digital, Exclusive economic zone, ICTs, ICT4SSF, Illegal fishing, IUU fishing, MCS, National security, Tracking, VMS

Abstract

Adaptive, inclusive and effective management of fisheries resources is dependent on knowledge from multiple quantitative and qualitative sources. As technology advances, there is an increasing interest in digital and automated solutions for gathering fisheries data. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) have presented a persistent challenge to many centralized quantitative data collection systems, and
frequently maintain the status of ‘unreported’. This unreported nature often implicates SSF in the definition and discussions of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Monitoring, control and surveillance are seen as a vital part of the solution to IUU fishing, with substantial investment being put into increasingly sophisticated technology for tracking fishing vessels. For the past few years, India has been attempting to pass legislation to require all vessels, from small-scale to industrial, to install vessel monitoring systems on the grounds of national security and combating IUU fishing. However, there are concerns that a securitized and top-down approach to implement vessel tracking is not only wasteful but risks further marginalization of small-scale fishers from the resource, and fisheries groups from governance processes. India should seek to solve the underlying causes of IUU fishing while also developing collaborative monitoring and community-based management models. In this paper, we review evidence of emerging information and communication technologies and approaches in SSF and discuss how, if introduced and managed through collaborative processes, they could be used as a platform to strengthen inclusive governance, increase sustainability and improve wellbeing in coastal fisheries in India.

References

Balint, R. (1999) The last frontier: Australia's maritime territories and the policing of Indonesian fishermen, Australian journal of French studies. Routledge, 23(63): 30-39. doi: 10.1080/14443059909387530.

Bavinck, M. (2005). Understanding fisheries conflicts in the south - a legal pluralist perspective. Society National Resource 18: 805-820.

Behivoke, F., Etienne, M.P., Guitton, J., Randriatsara,

R.M., Ranaivoson, E., and Léopold, M. (2021). Estimating fishing effort in small-scale fisheries

using GPS tracking data and random forests. Ecological Indicators 123: 107-321.

Bennett, N.J., Finkbeiner, E.M., Ban, N.C., Belhabib,

D., Jupiter, S.D., Kittinger, J.N., Mangubhai, S.,

Scholtens, J., Gill, D. and Christie, P. (2020). The

COVID-19 pandemic, small-scale fisheries and

coastal fishing communities. Coastal Management

(4): 336-347. doi:10.1080/08920753.2020.176

Bhalla, A. (2020). 12 years after 26/11 attack, 1.5 lakh

fishing vessels in Indian waters don’t have tracking

devices. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.

in/india/story/12-years-after-26-11-attack-1-5-

lakh-fishing-vessels-in-indian-waters-don-t-havetracking-devices 1744407-2020-11-26 (Accessed:February 14, 2021).

Bhatt, P. (2020). IUU fishing as a national security

threat: revisiting India’s domestic framework

and compliance with international regimes.

International Law Studies 96(1). 443-463.

Available at: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/

ils/vol96/iss1/14 (Accessed: January 28, 2021).

Blaha, F. and Katafono, K. (2020). Blockchain

Application in Seafood Value Chains, 1207. FAO

Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular, FAO, Rome.

pp 1-43. doi:10.4060/ca8751en.

Bradley, D., Merrifield, M., Miller, K.M., Lomonico,

S., Wilson, J.R., and Gleason, M.G. (2019).

Opportunities to improve fisheries management

through innovative technology and advanced data

systems. Fish and Fisheries 20: 564-583.

Campbell, S.J., Jakub, R., Valdivia, A., Setiawan, H.,

Setiawan, A., Cox, C., Kiyo, A., Darman, Djafar,

L.F., Rosa, E. de la, Suherfian, W., Yuliani, A.,

Kushardanto, H., Muawanah, U., Rukma, A.,

Alimi, T. and Box, S. (2021). Immediate impact

of COVID-19 across tropical small-scale fishing

communities. Ocean and Coastal Management

: 105-485.

Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M. and Sumaila, U.R. (2019). Busting myths that hinder an agreement to end harmful fisheries subsidies. Marine Policy 109:

doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103699.

CMFRI. (2019). Fish Catch Estimates. www.cmfri.org.in/fish-catch-estimates.html

Cohen, P.J., Allison, E.H., Andrew, N.L., Cinner, J.,

Evans, L.S., Fabinyi, M., Garces, L.R., Hall, S.J., Hicks, C.C., Hughes, T.P., Jentoft, S., Mills, D.J.,

Masu, R., Mbaru, E.K. and Ratner, B.D. (2019).

Securing a just space for small-scale fisheries in

the blue economy. Frontiers in Marine Science 6:

Counterview.org (2016). Sagarmala Project: Serious

Concerns Being Raised About Environmental

Effects on Coastal Areas. https://counterview.

org/2016/11/21/sagarmala-project-eriousconcerns-being-raised-about-environmentaleffects-on-coastal-areas/ (accessed March 11,2021)

Dakshinbanga Matsyajibi Forum (2021). Comments

on the Draft National Fisheries Policy 2020,

Dakshinbanga Matsyajibi Forum. https://smalls

calefishworkers.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2020/05/

DMF_Comments-on-Draft-NFP-2020_170221.

pdf

Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister

(2020). India’s Blue Economy: A Draft Policy

Framework. Government of India.

FAO. (2009). A Fishery Manager’s Guidebook. Second edition, K.L. Cochrane and S.M. Garcia (eds.), FAO and Wiley-Blackwell. Available at: http://

www.fao.org/3/i0053e/i0053e.pdf.

FAO. (2014). Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, FAO, Rome, Italy. Available at: http://www.fao.org/tenure/voluntary-guidelines/en/

FAO. (2015). Voluntary Guidelines for Securing

Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context

of Food Security and Poverty Eradication, FAO,

Rome, Italy. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/

i4356en/i4356en.pdf .

FAO. (2019). Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated

(IUU) Fishing, FAO, Rome, Italy. Available at:

http://www.fao.org/iuu-fishing/en/ (Accessed:

February 14, 2021).

FAO and WorldFish. (2020). Information and

Communication Technologies for Small-Scale

Fisheries (ICT4SSF) - A Handbook for Fisheries

Stakeholders. In support of the implementation of

the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food

Security and Poverty Eradication. A. Tilley

and M.B. Roscher (eds,). FAO, Bangkok and

WorldFish, Malaysia. doi:10.4060/cb2030en.

FAO. (2021). National Aquaculture Sector Overview.

India. National Aquaculture Sector Overview

Fact Sheets, Text by S. Ayyappan, FAO Fisheries

Division [online], Rome. http://www.fao.org/

fishery/countrysector/naso_india/en [Accessed 9

August 2021].

Frawley, T.H., Blondin, H.E., White, T.D., Carlson,

R.R., Villalon, B. and Crowder, L.B. (2021).

Fishers as foragers: individual variation among

small-scale fishing vessels as revealed by novel

tracking technology. Fisheries Research 238: 105-

Fujita, R., Cusack, C., Karasik, R., Takade-Heumacher,

H., and Baker, C. (2018). Technologies for

Improving Fisheries Monitoring, Environmental

Defense Fund, San Francisco. https://www.edf.

org/sites/default/files/oceans/Technologies_for_

Improving_Fisheries_Monitoring.pdf

Future of Fish (2019). Fishery Development Blueprint:

Traceability in the Peruvian Mahi Mahi Fishery.

Future of Fish. Available at: https://www.

futureoffish.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/

Mahi-Report_Eng_web.pdf.

Ghosh, S., Muktha, M., Hanumantha Rao, M.V. and

Behera, P.R. (2015). Assessment of stock status of

the exploited fishery resources in northern Bay of

Bengal using landed catch data. Indian Journal of

Fisheries 62: 23-30.

Gianelli, I., Ortega, L., Pittman, J., Vasconcellos, M. and Defeo, O. (2021). Harnessing scientific and local knowledge to face climate change in small-scale fisheries. Global Environmental Change 68:102-253.

GOI. (2021). Draft Indian Marine Fisheries Bill as of 23 July 2021. Available here: https://bit.ly/3yywkPv

Gunakar, S, Jadhav, A., Bhatta, R. (2017). Protections

for Small-Scale Fisheries in India: A Study of

India’s Monsoon Fishing Ban. MARE Publication

Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

pp 291-311.

Harper, J. (2020). Asia’s Fishermen and Farmers Go

Digital During Virus, BBC, 2 June. Available at:

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52767227

(Accessed: January 28, 2021).

Heymans, J.J., Mackinson, S., Sumaila, U.R., Dyck,

A., and Little, A. (2011). The impact of subsidies

on the ecological sustainability and future profits

from North Sea fisheries. PloS One 6(5): e20239.

Hilborn, R., Amoroso, R.O., Anderson, C.M., Baum,

J.K., Branch, T.A., Costello, C., de Moor, C.L.,

Faraj, A., Hively, D., Jensen, O.P., Kurota, H.,

Little, L.R., Mace, P., McClanahan, T., Melnychuk,

M.C., Minto, C., Osio, G.C., Parma, A.M.,

Pons, M., and Ye, Y. (2020). Effective fisheries

management instrumental in improving fish stock

status. Proceedings of the National Academy of

Sciences of the United States of America 117(4):

-2224.

Hind, E.J. (2014). A review of the past, the present,

and the future of fishers’ knowledge research: a

challenge to established fisheries science. ICES

Journal Marine Science 72: 341-358.

Iwama, A.Y., Araos, F., Anbleyth-Evans, J., Marchezini, V., Ruiz-Luna, A., Ther-Ríos F, Bacigalupe, G. and Perkins, P.E. (2021). Multiple knowledge systems and participatory actions in slow-onset effects of climate change: insights and perspectives in Latin America and the Caribbean. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 50: 31-42.

Jadhav, A. (2018). Undefining small-scale fisheries in India: challenging simplifications and ighlighting

diversity and value. In: Social Wellbeing and the

Values of Small-scale Fisheries, D.S. Johnson,

T.G. Acott, N. Stacey and J. Urquhart (eds.),

Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp 147-

Jena, J.K. and Grinson, G. (2018). Small-scale fisheries in India: an appraisal. In: Small-scale Fisheries in South Asia, S.S. Giri (ed.), SAARC Agriculture Centre, Bangladesh. pp 15-41.

Kelleher, K., Westlund, L., Hoshino, E., Mills, D.,

Willmann, R., de Graaf, G., and Brummett, R.

(2012). Hidden Harvest: The Global Contribution

of Capture Fisheries. World Bank; WorldFish.

Kurien, J. (2017). Small-Scale Fishermen Form the

Backbone of India’s Fisheries Sector, but Policy

is Silent on Them. Available at: https://scroll.in/

article/842300/small-scale-fishermen-form-thebackbone-of-indias-fisheries-sector-but-policy-issilent-on-them (Accessed: February 17, 2021).

Lakshmi, A. (2018). Report of the National Workshop on Small-scale Fisheries, Cyclone Ockhi and Disaster Risk Management, International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) Trust, May 29-30, 2018, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Madgavkar, A., Manyika, J., Krishnan, M., Ellingrud

K., Yee, L., Woetzel, J., Chui, M., Hunt, V. and

Balakrishnan, S. (2019). The Future of Women

at Work: Transitions in the Age of Automation.

McKinsey Global Institute.

Maritime New Zealand, (2018). Mandatory float-free EPIRBs for fishing vessels will save lives. Safe

Seas Clean Seas Issue 53: 7. Available at: https://

www.maritimenz.govt.nz/magazines/safe-seasclean-seas/issue-53/issue-53.pdf.

Marzuki, M.I., Gaspar, P., Garello, R., Kerbaol, V. and

Fablet, R. (2018). Fishing gear identification from

vessel-monitoring-system-based fishing vessel

trajectories. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering

: 689-699.

Ministry of Shipping, GOI (2019). Sagarmala - Concept & Objectives. http://sagarmala.gov.in/aboutsagarmala/

vision-objectives (accessed March 11, 2021)

Nayak, P.K., Oliveira, L.E. and Berkes, F. (2014).

Resource degradation, marginalization, and

poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to socialecological resilience in India and Brazil. Ecology and Society 19(2): 73. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-06656-190273.

Nayak, P. K., Oliveira, L. E. and Berkes, F. (2014) “Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil,†Ecology and Society. Resilience Alliance Inc., 19(2). doi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26269575.

NPSSFW. (2021). Submission of comments of the

National Platform for Small Scale Fish Workers

on the Draft National Fisheries Policy 2020.

https://smallscalefishworkers.org/wp-content/

uploads/2020/05/NPSSFW_Comments_Draft-

NFP-2020_6th-Draft.pdf

Nakashima, D.J., Galloway McLean, K., Thulstrup,

H.D., Ramos Castillo, A. and Rubis, J.T. (2012). Weathering Uncertainty: Traditional Knowledge

for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation,

UNESCO, Paris and UNU, Darwin, 120 p.

Nthane, T.T., Saunders, F., Gallardo Fernández, G.L.

and Raemaekers, S. (2020). Toward sustainability

of South African small-scale fisheries leveraging

ict transformation pathways. Sustainability 12(2):

Olsson, P., Folke, C. and Berkes, F. (2004). Adaptive

comanagement for building resilience in socialecological systems. Environmental Management 34(1): 75-90. doi:10.1007/s00267-003-0101-7.

Pinsky, M.L. and Mantua, N.J. (2014). Emerging

adaptation approaches for climate-ready fisheries

management. Oceanography 27(4): 146-159.

Pomeroy, R., Parks, J., Mrakovcich, K.L. and La

Monica, C. (2016). Drivers and impacts of fisheries scarcity, competition, and conflict on maritime security. Marine Policy 67: 94-104.

Project Provenance Ltd. (2016). Blockchain: The

Solution for Transparency in Product Supply

Chains. Project Provenance Ltd. Available at:

https://www.provenance.org/tracking-tuna-onthe-

blockchain (Accessed: February 11, 2021).

Rethinam, J. (2020). Webinar on Draft National

Fisheries Policy 2020 - A Critical Outlook. National Fishworkers Forum.

Sainsbury, N.C., Genner, M.J., Saville, G.R., Pinnegar,

J.K., O’Neill, C.K., Simpson, S.D. and Turner, R.A. (2018). Changing storminess and global capture fisheries. Nature Climate Change 8(8): 655-659.

Scholtens, J., Subramanian, K. and Jyotishi, A. (2021). A twisted trajectory. Samudra Report, 83. http://aquaticcommons.org/27115/1/Sam_83_art08_India_%20Joeri.pdf

Singh, D., Piplani, D., Shinde, S. and Karthik, S. (2016). mKRISHI fisheries: a case study on early warning system (EWS) for disaster communication

and management. 2016 IEEE International

Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS).

pp 1-6. doi: 10.1109/ISTAS.2016.7764280.

Smith, H. and Basurto, X. (2019). Defining small-scale fisheries and examining the role of science in

shaping perceptions of who and what counts: a

systematic review. Frontiers in Marine Science 6:

Song, A.M. (2015). Pawns, pirates or peacemakers:

Fishing boats in the inter-Korean maritime boundary dispute and ambivalent govern

mentality. Political Geography 48: 60-71. doi:

1016/j.polgeo.2015.06.002.

Song, A.M., Hoang, V.T., Cohen, P.J., Aqorau, T. and

Morrison, T.H. (2019). Blue boats and reef robbers: a new maritime security threat for the Asia Pacific? Asia Pacific Viewpoint 60(3): 310-324.

Song, A.M., Scholtens, J., Barclay, K., Bush, S. R.,

Fabinyi, M., Adhuri, D.S. and Haughton, M. (2020). Collateral damage? small-scale fisheries in the global fight against IUU fishing. Fish and Fisheries 21(4): 831-843.

Sreekumar, T.T. (2011). Mobile phones and the

cultural ecology of fishing in Kerala, India. The

Information Society 27(3): 172-180. doi:10.1080/

2011.566756.

Srinivasan, J. and Burrell, J. (2013). Revisiting the

fishers of Kerala, India, Proceedings Sixth

International Conference on Information and

communication technologies and development,

Full papers - vol. 1, Association for Computing

Machinery, December 7-10, 2013, New York,

USA. pp 56-66. doi:10.1145/2516604.2516618.

Sterling, B., Gooch, M., Dent, B., Marenick, N., Miller, A. and Sylvia, G. (2015). Assessing the value and role of seafood traceability from an entire value-chain perspective. Comprehensive Reviews in

Food Science and Food Safety 14(3): 205-268.

Steyn, J. and Das, M. (2015). Claims of mobile phone use by Kerala fishermen not supported by fieldwork. In: ICTs for Inclusive Communities in Developing Societies, J. Steyn and D. van Greunen (eds.), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK. pp 107-142.

Stone, I.S. (2020). SCALED UP: Go Fish: The Covid-19

Edition. Available at: https://www.dailymaverick.

co.za/article/2020-04-09-go-fish-the-covid-19-

edition (Accessed: February 1, 2021).

Suhendar, M. (2013). Comparison of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) between Iceland and Indonesia [Final Project]. United Nations University.

Available at: https://www.grocentre.is/static/gro/

publication/280/document/suhendar12prf.pdf.

Sumaila, U.R., Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., Pauly, D. and Herrick, S. (2011). Climate change impacts on the biophysics and economics of world fisheries.

Nature Climate Change 1(9): 449-456.

Sumaila, U.R., Rashid Sumaila, U., Ebrahim, N.,

Schuhbauer, A., Skerritt, D., Li, Y., Kim, H.S.,

Mallory, T.G., Lam, V.W.L. and Pauly, D.

(2019). Updated estimates and analysis of global

fisheries subsidies. Marine Policy 109: 103695.

doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103695.

Szuwalski, C.S. and Hollowed, A.B. (2016). Climate

change and non-stationary population processes

in fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine

Science 73(5): 1297-1305. doi:10.1093/icesjms/

fsv229.

Tilley, A., Hunnam, K., Mills, D., Steenbergen, D.,

Govan, H., Alonso-Poblacion, E., Roscher, M.,

Pereira, M., Rodrigues, P., Amador, T., Duarte,

A., Gomes, M. and Cohen, P. (2019). Evaluating

the fit of co-management for small-scale fisheries

governance in Timor-Leste. Frontiers in Marine

Science 6: 392.

Tilley, A., Wilkinson, S.P., Kolding, J., López-Angarita,

J., Pereira, M. and Mills, D.J. (2019). Nearshore

fish aggregating devices show positive outcomes

for sustainable fisheries development in Timor-

Leste. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 487.

Tilley, A., Dos Reis Lopes, J. and Wilkinson, S.P.

(2020). PeskAAS: a near-real-time, open-source

monitoring and analytics system for small-scale

fisheries. PloS one 15(11):0234760. doi:10.1371/

journal.pone.0234760.

UNCTAD. (2020). COVID-19 and E-Commerce: Impact on Businesses and Policy Responses. United

Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Available at: https://unctad.org/system/files/

official-document/dtlstictinf2020d2_en.pdf.

Urbina, I. (2021). Fish Farming Is Feeding the Globe.

What’s the Cost for Locals? The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2021/03/08/fishfarming-is-feeding-the-globe-whats-the-cost-forlocals

Vohra, S. (2020). Draft National Fisheries Policy Seeks Big Growth but Ignores Fishers. https://india. mongabay.com/2020/07/draft-national-fisheriespolicy-seeks-big-growth-but-ignores-fishers (accessed March 15, 2021)

Xiong, H., Dalhaus, T., Wang, P. and Huang, J.

(2020). Blockchain technology for agriculture:

applications and rationale. Frontiers in Blockchain

: 7.

Downloads

Submitted

2021-04-20

Published

2021-12-16

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

TILLEY, A., SONG, A. M., MENON, A., COHEN, P. J., & MANUEL, M. (2021). Emerging Information and Communication Technologies for Monitoring India’s Marine Small-Scale Fisheries, Opportunities for Inclusion, Risks of Exclusion. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 39(2), 80-94. https://doi.org/10.54894/JISCAR.39.2.2021.112131
Citation