Effect of Nutrient Management and Rice Establishment Methods on Biochemical and Physiological Attributes, Yield and Economics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Rice-Groundnut Cropping System in Coastal Odisha
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A field experiment was conducted during 2019-20 and 2020-21 to study the effect of nutrient management and rice establishment methods on biochemical, physiological attributes, yield and economics of rice in rice–groundnut cropping system in coastal Odisha. The experimental field was laid out in factorial randomised block design during Kharif and in split-plot design during Rabi with three replications. Six treatment combinations comprising two rice establishment methods viz., direct seeded rice (DSR) and transplanted rice (TPR) and three nutrient management practices, viz., inorganic source, organic source and integrated nutrient management (INM) in rice during Kharif were allotted to the main-plots. Three nutrient management practices to groundnut viz., 75% soil test based fertiliser, STBF (inorganic), 100% STBF (inorganic) and INM during Rabi were allotted to the sub-plots. The results of the study revealed that DSR recorded significantly higher plant height, tillers m-2, leaf temperature, net returns (Rs. 39121 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.68). The TPR was superior in terms of total chlorophyll content, dry matter production, panicles m-2, panicle weight, grains panicle-1, 1000-seed weight, leaf area index (LAI), light transmission ratio (LTR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) resulting in yield improvement of 3.3% over DSR. The INM practice was superior to other nutrient management approaches in total chlorophyll content, dry matter production and its partitioning into panicle (62.5%), panicles m-2, grains panicle-1, 1000-seed weight, LAI and leaf temperature, which resulted in 13.3 and 15.2% higher grain yield than inorganic and organic source of nutrient management, respectively. The INM treatment also recorded higher plant height, tillers m-2, crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), relative growth rate (RGR), net returns (Rs. 56246 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.89). Organic sources recorded higher NAR, RGR, panicle weight, but had the lowest dry matter accumulation and net returns.
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