Assessment of Salt Water Intrusion from Ponnani to Tavanur along the Banks of River Bharathapuzha in Kerala
Abstract views: 132 / PDF downloads: 66
Keywords:Electrical conductivity, Groundwater salinity, Salt water intrusion, Water quality
Groundwater is one of the major sources for irrigation and domestic purposes. The groundwater demand for various purposes is increasing in coastal areas. The population density in the coastal region is high and the health of people depends on the quality of water used. Ponnani, in the Malappuram district, is a thickly populated coastal town of Kerala where the availability of good quality drinking water is lacking. The study was undertaken to analyze the fluctuation of the water table and its effects on salinity intrusion and to understand the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes in the coastal belt of the Tavanur-Ponnani region. Six regions, Tavanur, Nariparambu, Chamaravattom, Purathur, Eswaramangalam and Ponnani are included in the study area. The water level was measured from observation wells in the field at monthly intervals, and samples were collected for water quality analysis during the period 2015 to 2021. The results obtained indicate that there is saline water intrusion in the coastal stretch of Purathur, Padinjarekkara and Ponnani regions of the Bharathapuzha river basin, and both salinity and EC is having an increasing trend in almost all wells during this period. The problem was found to be severe during dry periods (March-May) of the year in the Purathoor and Ponnani regions with salinity and EC rising to about 1800 mg L-1 and 1400 µs cm-1, respectively in the pre-monsoon period, which can be used for drinking only in the absence of an alternate source. In these areas, the groundwater available during the summer months becomes unsuitable even for irrigation purposes. During the monsoon season (June-November), the problem is less severe. Hence, it is recommended to restrict the use of groundwater at least to a lateral distance of 5 km from the seashore along the banks of the river.
Abdul, M.B., Seal, L. and Kazi Sunzida, K.L. (2015). Salinity intrusion in interior coast of Bangladesh: Challenges to agriculture in south-central coastal zone. American Journal of Climate Change 4: 248-26.
Adeyemi, A.G., Muhammed, D. and Oludare, A.T. (2019). Assessment of the suitability of water quality for irrigation in Ogbomosho, Oyo State. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences 09(02): 021-031.
Barlow, P.M. and Reichard, E.G. (2010). Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America. Hydrogeology Journal 18: 247–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s 10040-009-0514-3.
Bear, J., Cheng, A.H.D., Sorek, S.D., Ouazar, I. and Herrera. (1999). Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers: Concepts, Methods and Practices, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
CGWB [Central Ground Water Board]. (2010). Ground Water Quality in Shallow Aquifers of India, Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, Faridabad, Haryana. pp 4-6.
CGWB [Central Ground Water Board]. (2013). Ground Water Information Booklet of Malappuram District, Kerala. Technical Reports: Series D, Central Ground Water Board, Kerala Region, Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. 29 p.
Chaudhary, V. and Kumar, S.S. (2018). Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in arid areas of Rajasthan, India. Applied Water Science 8: 218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0865-9.
Farjoudi, S.Z. and Alizadeh, Z. (2021). A comparative study of total dissolved solids in water estimation models using Gaussian process regression with different kernel functions. Environmental Earth Sciences 80(557). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-021-09798-x.
George, J. and Athira P. (2020). Long-term changes in climatic variables over the Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 142: 269-286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-020-03255-8
Gopinath, S., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Saravanan, K., Suma, C.S., Prakash, R. and Senthilnathan, D. (2016). Modelling saline water intrusion in Nagapattinam coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India. Modelling Earth Systems and Environment 2: 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40808-015-0058-6.
Khatri, N. and Tyagi. S. (2014). Influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on surface and groundwater quality in rural and urban areas. Frontiers in Life Science 8(1): 23-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2014.933716.
Kumar, P.J.S., Elango, L. and James, E.J. (2014). Assessment of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in the coastal area of South Chennai, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 7: 2641-2653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-0940-3.
Kumar, P.J.S., Kokkat, A., Kurian, P.K. and James, E.J. (2020). Nutrient chemistry and seasonal variation in the groundwater quality of a Riverine Island on the west coast of Kerala, India. Sustainable Water Resources Management 6: 3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00358-y.
Kumar, S.P.J. (2016). Deciphering the groundwater–saline water interaction in a complex coastal aquifer in South India using statistical and hydro chemical mixing models. Modelling Earth Systems Environment 2: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-016-0251-2.
Machado, R.M.A. and Serralheiro, R.P. (2017). Soil salinity: effect on vegetable crop growth. Management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization. Horticulturae 3(2): 30. A. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae3020030.
Nazimuddin, M. and Basak, P. (1998). Ground water resources in Kerala: A case study in coastal shallow aquifer zone. In: Water Scenario of Kerala. E.J. James, et. al., (eds.) State Committee on Science, Technology and Environment, Government of Kerala, Kerala, India.
Nordio, G. and Fagherazzi, S. (2022). Salinity increases with water table elevation at the boundary between salt marsh and forest. Journal of Hydrology 608(5): 127576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127576.
Prasanth, S.S.V., Magesh, N.S., Jitheshlal, K.V., Chandrasekar, N. and Gangadhar, K. (2012). Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Applied Water Science 2: 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-012-0042-5.
Priju, C.P., Ramisha, N., Neerajamol, T.P., Madhavan, K. and Prasad, N.N.B. (2014). Geomorphological factors of coastal groundwater salinity in central Kerala: Integrated hydrochemical-geospatial approach, Proceedings International Symposium on Integrated water resources management (IWRM–2014), February 19-21, 2014, CWRDM, Kozhikode, Kerala, India. pp 1253-1262.
Ramesh, D.A., Bindu, M.V., Karthi, N., Amali, and Priya, R. (2021). Climate change risk management in coastal fishing villages of Malappuram District, Kerala, India. Social Vision 8(1):1-20
Senthilkumar, S., Vinodh, K. and Johnson Babu, G. (2019). Integrated seawater intrusion study of coastal region of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, South India. Applied Water Science 9: 124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1005-x.
Sharma, R., Kumar, R., Sharma, D.K., Sarkar, M., Mishra, B.K., Puri, V., Priyadarshini, I., Thong, P.H., Ngo, P.T. and Nhu, V. (2021). Water pollution examination through quality analysis of different rivers: A case study in India. Environment, Development and Sustainability 24: 7471-7492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01777-3.
Sharma, S., Imtiyaz, T., Zahoor, P., Mdgal, L.K. and Siddique, A. (2012). Physico Chemical properties of water of river Narmada at Madhya Pradesh, India. Researcher 4(6): 5-9.
Siddha, S. and Sahu, P. (2020). Status of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer of Gujarat, India: A review. SN Applied Sciences 2: 1726. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03510-7.
Sreedharan, S. and Pawels, R. (2018). Seasonal deviation of saltwater intrusion in the shallow aquifers of Kochi municipal corporation, Kerala, India. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 9: 596-605.
Suhag, R. (2016). Overview of Ground Water in India. PRS Legislative Research. pp 3-10. Available at: https://www.prsindia.org/administrator/uploads /general/1455682937.
Sukumaran, D. and Raj, J.P. (2020). Saline water intrusion in urban coastal area: A case study of Kuttiyadi River, Kerala, India. American Journal of Water Resources 8(3): 128-133. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajwr-8-3-3.
Sylus, K. J. and Ramesh, H. (2015). The study of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifer by electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid method in Gurpur and Netravathi River basin. Aquatic Procedia 4: 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.009.
Tomaszkiewicz, M., Abou, N.M. and El-Fadel, M. (2014). Development of a groundwater quality index for seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Environmental Modelling and Software 57: 13-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.03.010.
Wada, Y., van Beek, L.P.H., van Kempen, C.M., Reckman, W.T.M.J., Slavek V. and Marc F.P. Bierkens. (2010). Global depletion of groundwater resources. Geophysical Research Letters 37(20): 1-5.
Zghibi, A., Tarhouni, J. and Zouhri, L. (2013). Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia). Journal of African Earth Sciences 87: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.07.009.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright of the articles published in the Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research lies with the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research (ISCAR), who has the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained in the journal. However, ISCAR supports open access and there is no restriction in the use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that it is not being used for commercial purposes and due credit is given to ISCAR.