Assessment and Characterization of Groundwater Quality of Malabar Coast in Kerala, India

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  • P S SHEEJA Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India
  • D K SINGH Water Technology Centre, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India
  • A SARANGI ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar - 751 023, Odisha, India
  • VINAY SEHGAL Division of Agricultural Physics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India
  • M A IQUEBAL Division of Agriculture Bioinformatics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India


Aquifer characterisation, Geostatistics, Groundwater, Hydrochemical analysis, Seawater intrusion, Trend analysis


A study was conducted to assess and characterize the groundwater quality of the coastal aquifer of the Vatakara-Koyilandy stretch in the Kozhikode district of Kerala. The trend in groundwater levels was analyzed using the Mann-Kendall. Test To determine the chemical facies of the groundwater and understand the evolution of hydrochemical parameters, the Piper diagram was employed. The Gibbs diagram was used to describe the source of the dissolved ions in the groundwater. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated using the United States Salinity Laboratory diagram. Geostatistical tools were utilized to examine the spatial variability of groundwater levels and salinity, and the ordinary kriging method was employed to create spatial variability maps. The study revealed that Na+ was the predominant cation with maximum concentration varying from 455.6 mg L-1 to 1844 mg L-1 during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon; respectively. The concentration of Cl- in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon varied from 184 mg L-1 to 2417 mg L-1 and 99 mg L-1 to 714 mg L-1; respectively. The presence of these ions indicated the mixing of seawater with groundwater as the primary source. The study also highlighted the high salinity levels of the groundwater, making it unsuitable for irrigation in most of the area. Additionally, negative trends in groundwater levels were observed in confined and semi-confined aquifers, with wells near the coasts showing a significant decreasing trend. These findings emphasize the need for careful management and monitoring of the coastal aquifer to ensure sustainable water resources in the region.


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How to Cite

SHEEJA, P. S., SINGH, D. K. ., SARANGI, A., SEHGAL , V. ., & IQUEBAL, M. A. . (2024). Assessment and Characterization of Groundwater Quality of Malabar Coast in Kerala, India. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 41(2), 36-51.