Seasonal Variation in the Biological Traits of Invasive Amazon Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis) in East Kolkata Wetlands, India

Abstract views: 60 / PDF downloads: 42


  • AJMAL HUSSAN Field Station of Regional Research Station-Rahara, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal, India
  • AT RAMACHANDRA NAIK Department of Aquatic Environment and Management, College of Fisheries, Mangaluru - 575 002, Karnataka, India
  • SUBHENDU ADHIKARI Regional Research Station, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata - 700 118, West Bengal, India
  • ARABINDA DAS Regional Research Station, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata - 700 118, West Bengal, India
  • FARHANA HOQUE Regional Research Station, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata - 700 118, West Bengal, India
  • JITENDRA KUMAR SUNDARAY ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar - 751 002, Odisha, India


Alien fishes, Condition factor, Length-weight relationship, Reproduction


Invading sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys spp. in East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW), India were studied for their length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factor and reproductive characteristics covering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Using seine nets, fish samples were taken every month from May to December 2022 from five distinct EKW sites. Season-specific b-values for the LWR showed negative allometric growth, ranging from 2.663 to 2.809. Seasonal variation was negligible for Fulton's condition factor (Kc), which varied between 0.741 and 0.756. The mean relative condition factor (Kn) was likewise found to be near 1 in all seasons (0.999 - 1.041). The sex ratio (male to female) showed an average mean value of 1: 3.61, with no noticeable seasonal change. However, gonado-somatic index (GSI) of males (0.164±0.007) and females (7.174±0.225) during the monsoon months (July - September) was found to be considerably greater (p <0.001) than pre-monsoon and post-monsoon GSI of the respective gender. Females were observed to have a lower mean total length at maturity (31.6 - 35.3 cm) than males (36.2 - 37.1 cm). No significant difference in mean absolute fecundity (3914.63±103.70 nos. female-1) of ripe females was observed, although gonad mass and relative fecundity (RF) differed considerably (p <0.05) by season. Seasonal interactions with study sites were found to have a considerable impact on ripe females' RF and egg size, as well as Kn and GSI of both sexes. It was also noted that the condition factors and reproductive characteristics of sailfin catfish varied each month. Overall, mean Kn values of close to 1 (~1) indicate that sailfin catfishes in EKW are in excellent condition of health and well-being. Additionally, the mean GSI of mature females was found continuously greater than three (>3) in each month of the study period, indicating that these fishes in EKW had a protracted breeding time.


Download data is not yet available.


Armbruster, J.W. and Page, L.M. (2006). Redescription of Pterygoplichthys punctatus and description of a new species. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(4): 401-409.

Cook-Hildreth, S.L., Bonner, T.H. and Huffman, D.G. (2016). Female reproductive biology of an exotic suckermouth armored catfish (Loricariidae) in the San Marcos River, Hays Co., Texas, with observations on environmental triggers. Bioinvasions Records 5(3): 173-183.

De Giosa, M., Czerniejewski, P. and Rybczyk, A. (2014). Seasonal changes in condition factor and weight-length relationship of invasive Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) from Leszczynskie Lakeland, Poland. Advances in Zoology 2014: 1-7.

Dinh, Q.M., Nguyen, T.H.D., Truong, N.T. and Nguyen-Ngoc, L. (2022). Factors regulating growth pattern and condition factor of an amphibious fish Periophthalmus gracilis living in the Mekong Delta. Peer J 10: e13060.

EKWMA and WISA (2021). East Kolkata Wetlands: Management Action Plan 2021 - 2026. Report ID: EKW-2021-01, East Kolkata Wetlands Management Authority and Wetlands International South Asia. 234 p.

Escalera-Vázquez, L.H., Garcia-Lopez, J.E., Sosa-Lopez, A., Calderon-Cortes, N. and Hinojosa-Garro, D. (2019). Impact of the non-native locariid fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis in native fish community on a seasonal tropical floodplain in Mexico. Aquatic Ecosystem Health Management 22(4): 462-472.

Froese, R. (2006). Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(4): 241-253.

Gibbs, M., Watson, P., Johnson-Sapp, K. and Lind, C. (2017). Reproduction revisited - A decade of changes in the reproductive strategies of an invasive catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), in Volusia Blue Spring, Florida. Aquatic Invasions 12(2): 225-239.

Gibbs, M.A., Shields, J.H., Lock, D.W., Talmadge, K.M. and Farrell, T.M. (2008). Reproduction in an invasive exotic catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus in Volusia Blue Spring, Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology 73(7): 1562-1572.

Gozlan, R.E., Britton, J.R., Cowx, I. and Copp, G.H. (2010). Current knowledge on non-native freshwater fish introductions. Journal of Fish Biology 76(4): 751-786.

Hoover, J.J., Killgore, K.J. and Cofrancesco, A.F. (2004). Suckermouth catfishes: threats to aquatic ecosystems of the United States? ANSRP Bulletin 4(1): 1-13.

Hussan, A. (2016). Threats to fish diversity of East Kolkata Wetlands and conservation needs. Aquaculture Times 2(6): 10-15.

Hussan, A., Choudhury, T.G., Das, A. and Gita, S. (2016). Suckermouth sailfin catfishes: A future threat to aquatic ecosystems of India. Aquaculture Times 2(6): 20-22.

Hussan, A., Mandal, R.N., Hoque, F., Das, A., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Adhikari, S. (2018). Dominance of intergrades of invasive suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in coastal wetlands of West Bengal, India. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research 36(1): 84-92.

Hussan, A., Sundaray, J.K., Mandal, R.N., Hoque, F., Das, A., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Adhikari, S. (2019). Invasion of non-indigenous suckermouth armoured catfish of the genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae) in the East Kolkata Wetlands: Stakeholder’s perception. Indian Journal of Fisheries 66(2): 29-42.

Jisr, N., Younes, G., Sukhn, C. and El-Dakdouki, M.H. (2018). Length-weight relationships and relative condition factor of fish inhabiting the marine area of the Eastern Mediterranean city, Tripoli-Lebanon. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 44(4): 299-305.

Jumawan, J.C. and Herrera, A.A. (2014). Ovary morphology and reproductive features of the female suckermouth sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber 1991) from Marikina River, Philippines. Asian Fisheries Science 27(1): 75-89.

Jumawan, J.C., Herrera, A.A., Jumawan, J.H. and Benjamin, V.J.jr. (2016). Size structure and reproductive phenology of the suckermouth sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) from Marikina River, Philippines. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 11(1): 18-23.

Le Cren, E.D. (1951). The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the Perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology 20: 201-219.

Matute, D.R. (2013). The role of founder effects on the evolution of reproductive isolation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 2299-2311.

Muralidharan, M., Manikandan, K. and Gobi, M. (2015). Extended distribution of the invasive Sucker catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) to Cauvery river system of peninsular India. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 3(1): 14-18.

Orfinger, A.B. and Goodding, D.D. (2018). The Global Invasion of the suckermouth armored catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): annotated list of species, distributional summary, and assessment of impacts. Zoological Studies 57(7): 1-16.

Page, L.M. and Robins, R.H. (2006). Identification of sailfin catfishes (Teleosti: Loricariidae) in south-eastern Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54: 455-457.

Rueda-Jasso, R.A., Campos-Mendoza, A., Arreguin-Sanchez, F., Diaz-Pardo, E. and Martinez-Palacios, C.A. (2013). The biological and reproductive parameters of the invasive armored catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus from Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán-Guerrero. Mexico. Revista Mexicanade Biodiversidad 84(1): 318-326.

Sahoo, L., Swain, P.P., Hussan, A., Mohapatra, A. and Sundaray, J.K. (2022). DNA barcoding delineates the identity of invasive South American sucker mouth armoured catfishes of genus Pterygoplichthys of East Kolkata Wetland, West Bengal, India as single species. Indian Journal of Fisheries 69(4): 115-118.

Samat, A., Shukor, M.N., Mazlan, A.G., Arshad, A. and Fatimah, M.Y. (2008). Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) in Malaysia Peninsula. Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology 3: 48-53.

Samat, A., Yusoff, F.M., Arshad, A., Ghaffar, M.A., Nor, S.M., Magalhaes, A.L.B. and Das, S.K. (2016). Reproductive biology of the introduced sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Indian Journal of Fisheries 63(1): 35-41.

Sundaray, J.K., Hussan, A. and Das, I.I. (2022). Aquatic invasive species: traditional control options to emerging genetic bio-control strategies. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research 40(1): 1-12.

Trippel, E.A. and Harvey, H.H. (1987). Reproductive responses of five white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations in relation to lake acidity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44(5): 1018–1023.

Vargas-Rivas, A.G., Barba-Macias, E., Sanchez, A.J. and Castellanos-Morales, G. (2023). Lack of mtDNA genetic diversity despite phenotypic variation and environmental heterogeneity in the exotic suckermouth armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis). Biological Invasions 25(4): 1035-1056.

Wanasinghe, W.M.L.K., Fouzi, M.N.M., Lokugalappatti, L.G.S. and Siril Ariyaratne, H.B. (2023). Seasonal changes of gonadal activity of invasive vermiculated sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) from Polgolla reservoir in Sri Lanka. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 49(1): 75-80.

Wei, H., Liu, F., Vilizzi, L., Wood, L.E., Hu, Y. and Copp, G.H. (2022). Environmental related variation in growth and life-history traits of non-native sailfin catfishes (Pterygoplichthys spp.) across river basins of South China. Aquatic Invasions 17(1): 92-109.

Wei, H., Copp, G.H., Vilizzi, L., Liu, F., Gu, D.G., Luo, D., Xu, M., Mu, X.D. and Hu, Y.C. (2017). The distribution, establishment and life-history traits of non-native sailfin catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. in the Guangdong Province of China. Aquatic Invasions 12: 241-249.

Wu, L.W., Liu, C.C. and Lin, S.M. (2011). Identification of exotic sailfin catfish species (Pterygoplichthys, Loricariidae) in Taiwan based on morphology and mtDNA sequences. Zoological Studies 50: 235-246.

Yilmaz, S., Yazicioglu, O., Erbasaran, M., Esen, S., Zengin, M. and Polat, N. (2012). Length-weight relationship and relative condition factor of White Brean, Blicca bjoerkna (L., 1758), from Lake Ladik, Turkey. Journal of the Black Sea/ Mediterranean Environment 18(3): 380-387.









How to Cite

HUSSAN, A., NAIK, A. R., ADHIKARI, S., DAS, A., HOQUE, F., & SUNDARAY, J. K. (2024). Seasonal Variation in the Biological Traits of Invasive Amazon Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis) in East Kolkata Wetlands, India. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 41(2), 108-119.