Crafting a Gender Disparity Index to Unveiling the Tea Garden Workers’ Gender Dynamics


Abstract views: 90 / PDF downloads: 32

Authors

  • Rekha Khalkho Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati
  • Souvik Ghosh Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati

https://doi.org/10.48165/IJEE.2023.590429

Keywords:

Gender Disparity Index (GDI), Gender dimensions, Gender roles, Item analysis, Tea garden workers

Abstract

Gender dynamics significantly impact tea garden workers' performance. A Gender Disparity Index (GDI) was developed to assess gender differences within the tea plantation sector during 2022-23. The construction of GDI commenced with item analysis, employing the Likert's Technique. A total of seven dimensions were included following the Harvard analytical and Moser frameworks of gender analysis. Based on the relevancy, t statistics, and content validity, five dimensions were kept in the index, namely, activity profile, influencing factors for differential roles, gender role identification, gender need assessment, and decision-making behaviour of tea garden workers. A universe of 92 items under five dimensions was prepared, and the relevancy of each item was judged by 56 experts; subsequently, 72 items were screened on which the responses of 60 workers of non-sampled tea gardens were obtained and finally 68 items were selected under five dimensions of the index followed by testing of their content validity and reliability of the index. This GDI may be used as an effective instrument to unravel gender disparities in tea gardens and other similar plantations' estates.

Author Biographies

  • Rekha Khalkho, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati

    Ph. D. Scholar, Department of Agricultural Extension

  • Souvik Ghosh, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati

    Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension

References

Bareh, P., & Ghosh, S. (2016). Self-help group effectiveness index and empowerment index: An analytical approach for monitoring and evaluation of SHG. Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development, 11(2), 182-187.

Bhati, K., Patel, M., & Pandya, R. D. (2023). Attitude of farm families towards gender equity: development and validation of a scale. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 59(2), 121-123.

Bhattacharyya, S. (2019). Socio-economic status of tea garden women workers: A case study. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 5(4), 1-5.

Chaudhari, R. R., Hirevenkanagoudar, L. V., Hanchinal, S. N., Mokashi, A. N., Katharki, P. A., &Banakar, B. (2010). A scale for measurement of entrepreneurial behaviour of dairy farmers. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(4), 792-796.

Das, N. K. (2016). Making of tea tribes in Assam: Colonial exploitation and assertion of adivasi rights. Journal of Adivasi and Indigenous Studies, 3(1), 1-16.

De, H. K., Saha, G. S., Mahapatra, A. S., Mohanty, U. L., Rath, D. P., Shasani, S., & Panigrahi, A. (2023). Measuring women empowerment in aquaculture- An empirical study. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 59(2), 108-112.

Dishanka, S.,& Ikemoto, Y. (2014). Social development and labor productivity: The problem and a solution for the tea plantation sector of Sri Lanka. Colombo Business Journal, 5(1), 67-80.

Dishanka, S., Sakurai, T., & Ikemoto, Y. (2021). Equity and efficiency in women-empowered contract farming: An explanatory case study on the tea estate sector of Sri Lanka. Journal of Economics and Behavioural Studies, 13(6), 40-54.

Edwards, A. L. (1957). Techniques of attitude scale construction. Vakils, Feffer and Simons Private Ltd., Mumbai.

Ghosh, S., Nanda, P., & Kumar, A. (2011). Formulation of group dynamics effectiveness index and steps to mobilise users’ group for participatory water management. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 47(1&2), 1-7.

Kubendran, C. (2020). Gender discrimination in tea plantation in Munnar, Kerala. International Journal of Management, 11, 4383-4393.

Kumar R., Slathia P.S., Peshin R., Gupta S.K. and Nain M.S. (2016). A test to measure the knowledge of farmers about rapeseed mustard cultivation. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 52(3&4), 157-159.

Likert, R. (1932). A technique for measurement of attitude. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-54.

Mukherjee, A., Singh, P., Rakshit, S., & Burman, R. R. (2018). Development and standardization of scale to measure farmer’s attitude towards farmers’ producer Company. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 54(4), 84-90.

Raj, A., Jaganathan, D., Prakash, P., & Immanuel, S. (2022). Women’s empowerment index in cassava: An innovative tool for gender mainstreaming. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 58(4), 42-45.

Rout S.,&Samantaray S. (2022). Interplay of artificial intelligence and ecofeminism: a reassessment of automated agroecology and biased gender in the tea plantations. Proceedings of the 2022 International Conference on Advancements in Smart, Secure and Intelligent Computing(ASSIC), Bhubaneswar, India, 22889261, 1-6.

Roy, H., Jirli, B., & Maji, S. (2022). Measuring the role performance of farmer producer companies: An index development perspective. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 22(3), 49-57.

Roy, S. (2017). Women labour in the tea gardens of West Bengal: Changing orientation and emerging challenges. International Journal of Engineering Development and Research, 5(4), 862-868.

Saha, D., Bhue, C., & Singha, R. (2019). Decent work for tea plantation workers in Assam: Constraints, challenges, and prospects. Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Guwahati Campus.

Sarkar, K. (2019a). Low wages and gender discrimination: The case of plantation workers in West Bengal. NLI Research Studies Series No. 136, V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, Noida.

Sarkar, S. (2019b). Labour migration in the tea plantations: colonial and neo-liberal trajectories of plantation labour in the dooars tea belt of West Bengal. Journal of Migration Affairs, 2(1), 25-43.

Sarkar, S., Chowdhury, A., Roy, P., & Chowdhury, M. (2016). Socio-economic status of the tea garden women workers: A case study from sub-Himalayan regions of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(10), 681-684.

Shen, J., & Chou, R. J. (2022). Rural revitalization of Xiamei: The development experiences of integrating tea tourism with ancient village preservation. Journal of Rural Studies, 90, 42-52.

Sita, K., & Herawati, E. (2017). Gender relation in tea plucking workers: A case study of gender division of labour and gender relation in Gambungtea plantation, West Java. Sodality: JurnalSosiologiPedesaan, 5(1), 1-8.

UNDP (2020). Human Development Reports. https://hdr.undp.org/data-center/thematic-composite-indices/gender-inequality-index#/indicies/GII

Vijayan, B., Nain, M S., Singh, R. and Kumbhare, N. V. (2022). Knowledge test for extension personnel on National Food Security Mission, Indian Journal of Extension Education, 58 (2):191-94.

Downloads

Submitted

17.08.2023

Published

18.09.2023

How to Cite

Crafting a Gender Disparity Index to Unveiling the Tea Garden Workers’ Gender Dynamics. (2023). Indian Journal of Extension Education, 59(4), 145-149. https://doi.org/10.48165/IJEE.2023.590429
Citation

Similar Articles

1-10 of 531

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.