About the Journal

Focus and Scope

The Indian Journal of Extension Education is the open access, indexed, and peer-reviewed official publication of the Indian Society of Extension Education (ISEE), Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, INDIA.

The ISEE is a registered professional society under Societies Registration Act 21 of 1860 (Punjab Amendment Act,1957) as extended to the Union Territory of Delhi. The registration number is S-2504 of 1964-65. 

The ISEE is mandated to advance the cause of Extension Education. The Society shall seek to achieve the objectives by publishing the Indian Journal of Extension (ISSN 0537-1996 (print) and 2454-552X (online)), books, monographs, etc. The ISEE facilitates closer association amongst members and other scientific workers in India and abroad for promoting professional experience in teaching, research, and extension. The ISEE encourages fundamental as well as applied research in the field of extension education. The focus subject areas of the Indian Journal of Extension Education include; Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Communication, Agricultural Entrepreneurship, Extension Management, Agricultural Education, Socioeconomic Studies, Rural Sociology & Educational Psychology, Adoption & Diffusion of Farm Innovations, Agricultural Diversification, ICT application in Agriculture, Planned Agricultural Change, Agricultural & Rural Development, and contemporary agricultural extension issues related to Agricultural Science/ Dairying / Communication/ Home Science / Fisheries / Veterinary and allied social sciences.

The Indian Journal of Extension Education publishes peer-reviewed original research papers in the field of extension education and allied fields. The journal accepts original research papers and research notes only. To publish a paper in the Indian Journal of Extension Education, it is preferred that at least the first or corresponding author must be a life member/ ordinary member of the Indian Society of Extension Education.

As per the bylaws of ISEE, anyone with a post-graduate degree in Extension Education/ Agricultural Extension/ Dairy Extension/ Agricultural Communication/ Home Science Extension/ Fisheries Extension/ Veterinary Extension and allied social sciences can become a life member. However, ordinary membership (annual only) is open to all those who are interested in the field of extension education. Student membership is open for any student of university/ technical college/ research institute/ college/ technical school perusing a Master's or Doctoral degree in any of the branch (agriculture/ dairy/veterinary/home science/ fisheries etc.) of extension education. The student membership is valid for five years only.

https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2454-552X 

Authors' Guidelines

The Indian Journal of Extension Education is the peer-reviewed, open access and indexed official publication of Indian Society of Extension Education (ISEE), new Delhi. It publishes original research papers in the field of extension education and allied fields.

Paper for publication should be submitted online at https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee  or at the official website http://www.iseeiari.org/  . The official email of the chief editor of the society is chiefeditorisee@gmail.com . Before submission of the paper, it is strongly advised that it may be checked and edited by your coauthor(s), and professional colleagues for its technical contents including grammatical and spelling correctness. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 12 typed pages (double space). The plagiarism must be checked before submission. The plagiarism check report with appropriate software (Turnitin/ URKUND/ ithenticate/ ouriginal etc.) should be submitted as a supplementary file and it should be below 10 %.

Submission of final manuscript: The submitted paper will be evaluated by the editorial members and referees for their suitability. The paper will be sent back to the author to carry out the changes or modifications as suggested by the referees and editorial members. The final manuscript has to be uploaded only in electronic form (as an attachment) through https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee with an email to the following e-mail address: chiefeditorisee@gmail.com .

The manuscript should be arranged as follows: Title, running title, abstract, keyword, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion, and references. Kindly check the recent issues at http://www.iseeiari.org/

Title Page: The names, current affiliation, complete address (the place where work was conducted) including e-mail address of author(s), Present address(es) of the author(s) if applicable; Complete correspondence address including email address to which the proofs should be sent (these should be given as footnote on the first page). Do not use abbreviations or acronyms for the designation of job, position, and institution name. The title must be centered (16 points bold). The first letter of every word of the title should be in upper case (Capital letters). All other letters should be in lowercase (small letters). Example: Socioeconomic Impact of Self-Help Groups.

The TITLE should not exceed 14 words and must be representative of the content.

The ABSTRACT is a mini version of the full paper. The abstract should contain the year of study, a brief account of principal objective(s), methods used, principal results, and the main conclusion in understandable form so that the reader need not refer to the whole article except for details. It should be written in the simple past tense, in complete sentences, limited to 150-200 words. It should not have references to literature, illustrations, and tables.

The KEYWORDS best describe the nature of the research after the abstract. Provide a list of 5 to 8 keywords (indexing terms). The first letter of each keyword should be in upper case or capital letters. As major words in the title are not used in the subject index, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as keywords.

The INTRODUCTION provides a rationale for the study, written in the present tense, which refers to established knowledge in literature. It should contain the nature and scope of the problem, a review of relevant literature, a hypothesis, approach, and a justification for this approach. No trade name should be used and Industrial products should be referred to by their chemical names (give ingredients in parentheses) at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. It should be between 450-500 words.

The’ METHODOLOGY’describes what was done- experimental model or field study. It should be an exhaustive one (in a logical order, with sufficient details to reproduce the procedure) without tables and figures (approximately 300- 400 words). The subheadings must be avoided as far as possible in methodology. It should be written in the simple past tense. Where the methods are well known, the citation of standard work is sufficient. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Experimental materials and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Calculations and the validity of deductions made from them should be checked and validated. Units of measurement, symbols, and standard abbreviations should conform to international standards. Metric measurements are preferred, and dosages should be expressed entirely in metric units (SI units). Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. 

The RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONshould preferably be combined to avoid repetition. Results present the data, the facts- what you found/ calculated/ discovered/ observed. It should be written in the simple past tense to report your observations on the experiment/fieldwork, and its comparison/contrast. Only the salient results need to be presented instead of writing the whole tabular/ graphical data in text.  Too many paragraphs are discouraged; one concept must be dealt with in one place and time in one paragraph. The Discussion shows the relationship among the facts, it puts results in the context of previous research, and the emphasis must be on presenting results in relation to established knowledge. The discussion should contain trends, relationships, generalizations, any exceptions, outlying data, and agreement/ disagreement with previous research with reasons. The discussion should be written in the present tense. IJEE does not appreciate more than three subheadings in Results and Discussion. Avoid making too many tables just for the number's sake, do not give socio-personal profile table and text till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so).

  • Results should be presented in tabular form and graphs when feasible but not both. The colour figures and plates are printed when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Mean results with the relevant standard errors should be presented rather than detailed data. The data should be so arranged that the tables would fit in the normal layout of the page. Self-explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets and carry appropriate titles. The titles of tables/figures should not be more than 12 words. The tabular matter should not exceed 20% of the text. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. All tables should be cited in the text. If an explanation is necessary, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g. ND) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. References to footnotes in a table are specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lowercase p to indicate probability values (i.e. p<0.05). In general, use numerals, when two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e. three districts were selected rather than 3 districts were selected). In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10 use numerals for all (i.e. 2 splits, 6 plants were selected). Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Spell it out or rearrange the sentence. Abbreviate the terms hour (h), minute (min) and second (sec) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone. Do not use a hyphen to indicate inclusiveness (e.g. use 12 to 14 years or wk 3 and 4, not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4). Use Arabic numerals with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3%, and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc. 
  • The ‘CONCLUSION’summarizes principal findings and should not be more than one paragraph (100-150 words) after the discussion and explain in general terms the implications of the findings of this research. It has to be written in the present tense and the emphasis must be on what should now be accepted as established knowledge. The conclusion should relate back to the introduction and hypothesis. The implication, the significance of your results, or any practical application must find a place in the conclusion. Abbreviations, acronyms, or citations should not be used here. It should not be a repetition of the abstract.
  • Figures (histogram/pie chart/another type of chart) should be in editable rich text material with the backup data file. The image of the figure or jpg/jpeg is not allowed.
  • The paper should always be written in the third person form (Avoid I /We / Research Team / Project Team etc.).There is always a different style for paper writing and thesis writing, try to be precise enough without compromising the quality. Avoid too many paragraphs; one concept must be dealt with at one place and time in one paragraph. There must not be 3-4 subheadings in the result and discussion and the table & figures must be limited to a maximum of 5 for the research paper and 3 for the research note. Avoid presenting the same data in text, table, and figures verbatim. Avoid making too many tables just for the number sake, also avoid giving socio-personal profiles till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so). Also discouraged too many columns in the table, like; number/ frequency in one column, the percentage in the second, and rank in the third, only one column showing percent will be sufficient.
  • The references list should be typed in alphabetical order. The reference list should be first sorted alphabetically by author(s) and secondly chronologically. A recent issue of the journal should be consulted for the methods of citation of REFERENCES in the text as well as at the end of the article. The Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) follows standard APA Style references and citations in text. Journal names should never be abbreviated. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9, and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also, see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. A few examples of reference sections as well as in-text citations are given at https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about/submissions  :
    • A minimum of three references from the previous three years' issues of IJEE available at epubs only are encouraged. There must be at least 15 references from the related research. It is appreciable if the references are from Social Science/ Extension Education/ Communication/ Entrepreneurship/ Management/ Education related journals. References from other non-social science journals are not appreciated. References should not be abbreviated especially the journal name (as per IJEE style). Check capitalization Vs sentence case properly. In references, the ‘&’ should be used instead of ‘and’ before the last author's name, whereas in the text it should be ‘and’. The word ‘et al’ must not be in italics in the text. The reference, in general, should not be older than 15 years and should be from published sources only. Avoid unpublished thesis (older than five years) references. Wherever possible provide the URL of the reference. Unauthenticated references may lead to the rejection of the manuscript.
    • Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyrighted material and include an acknowledgment of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under new authorship in a different or the same language, is plagiarism.
    • Articles forwarded to the editor for publication are understood to be offered to the Indian Journal of Extension Education exclusively and the copyrights automatically stand transferred to the Indian Society of Extension Education. It is also understood that the authors have obtained the approval of their department, faculty, or institute in cases where such permission is necessary. The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the authors thereof. Proof correction should be in Track Change mode. All queries marked in the article should be answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of typesetting and facts. The proofs should be returned within 3 days. The alternation in the author's name is not permitted at any later stage after the article is submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.
  • The article certificate, Author Contribution form, Disclosure of Competing Interest & Declaration of Conflict of Interest duly signed by all the authors should be mailed in original to the Chief Editor, ISEE on acceptance of the manuscript in the prescribed format (available at https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about ). In absence of these certificates, the manuscript processing will immediately be stopped and will not be published.

Reference section

 Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) follows common APA Style references and citations in text. Journal names should never be abbreviated. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9, and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also, see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. A few examples of reference sections as well as text citations are given below:

a) Journal Article

Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 841–853. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000396  

b) Online Magazine Article

Gander, K. (2020, April 29). COVID-19 vaccine being developed in Australia raises antibodies to neutralize virus in pre-clinical tests. Newsweekhttps://www.newsweek.com/australia-covid-19-vaccine-neutralize-virus-1500849  

c) Print Magazine Article

Nicholl, K. (2020, May). A royal spark. Vanity Fair, 62(5), 56–65, 100.

d) Online Newspaper Article

Roberts, S. (2020, April 9). Early string ties us to Neanderthals. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/09/science/neanderthals-fiber-string-math.html

e) Print Newspaper Article

Reynolds, G. (2019, April 9). Different strokes for athletic hearts. The New York Times, D4.

f) Blog Post

Rutledge, P. (2019, March 11). The upside of social media. The Media Psychology Blog. https://www.pamelarutledge.com/2019/03/11/the-upside-of-social-media/

g) Authored Book

Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000048-000

h) Edited Book Chapter 

Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind–body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000157-002

i) Online Dictionary Entry

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Internet addiction. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/internet-addiction

j) Report by a Group Author

World Health Organization. (2014). Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/113048/WHO_NMH_NHD_14.1_ eng.pdf?ua=1

k) Report by Individual Authors

Winthrop, R., Ziegler, L., Handa, R., & Fakoya, F. (2019). How playful learning can help leapfrog progress in education. Center for Universal Education at Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/ uploads/2019/04/how_playful_learning_can_help_leapfrog_progress_in_education.pdf

l) Press Release

American Psychological Association. (2020, March 2). APA reaffirms psychologists’ role in combating climate change [Press release]. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2020/03/combating-climate-change

m) Conference Session

Davidson, R. J. (2019, August 8–11). Well-being is a skill [Conference session]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/a5ea5d51/files/uploaded/APA2019_ Program_190708.pdf

n) Dissertation From a Database

Horvath-Plyman, M. (2018). Social media and the college student journey: An examination of how social media use impacts social capital and affects college choice, access, and transition (Publication No. 10937367) [Doctoral dissertation, New York University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

o) Preprint Article

Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2020). A meta-analytic review of the benefit of spacing out retrieval practice episodes on retention. PsyArXiv. https://psyarxiv.com/kzy7u/

p) Data Set

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36966.v1

q) Film or Video

Doctor, P., & Del Carmen, R. (Directors). (2015). Inside out [Film]. Walt Disney Pictures; Pixar Animation Studios.

r) TV Series Episode

Dippold, K. (Writer), & Trim, M. (Director). (2011, April 14). Fancy party (Season 3, Episode 9) [TV series episode]. In G. Daniels, H. Klein, D. Miner, & M. Schur (Executive Producers), Parks and recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions; Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Media Studios.

s) Webinar

Kamin, H. S., Lee, C. L., & McAdoo, T. L. (2020). Creating references using seventh edition APA Style [Webinar]. American Psychological Association. https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/tutorials-webinars

t) YouTube Video

Above The Noise. (2017, October 18). Can procrastination be a good thing? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQMwmBNNOnQ

u) Song or Track

Nirvana. (1991). Smells like teen spirit [Song]. On Nevermind. DGC.

v) Radio Broadcast

Hersher, R. (2020, March 19). Spring starts today all over America, which is weird [Radio broadcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/03/19/817237429/spring-starts-today-all-over america-which-is-weird3

Podcast Episode 

Santos, L. (Host). (n.d.). Psychopaths and superheroes (No. 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In The happiness lab with Dr. Laurie Santos. Pushkin Industries. https://www.happinesslab.fm/season-2-episodes/ episode-1  

Infographic 

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Data sharing [Infographic]. https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/ data-sharing-infographic.pdf   

PowerPoint From a Classroom Website 

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login  

Tweet

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2020, April 7). It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals. They’re still giving [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238  

Open Educational Resource

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view  

Webpage

Chandler, N. (2020, April 9). What’s the difference between Sasquatch and Bigfoot? howstuffworks. https://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/strange-creatures/sasquatch-bigfoot-difference.html    

Webpage on a News Website

Machado, J., & Turner, K. (2020, March 7). The future of feminism. Vox. https://www.vox.com/ identities/2020/3/7/21163193/international-womens-day-2020  

Webpage With a Retrieval Date

Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2020, May 6). COVID-19 dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). Johns Hopkins University & Medicine, Coronavirus Resource Center. Retrieved May 6, 2020, from https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html  

Citations in text

Groups of references cited in a sentence in the text must be listed in chronological order.

In-text, citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative.

In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses. Both the author and the date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses for a parenthetical citation. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence. For example

Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).

In narrative citations, the author name is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence and the year follows in parentheses. The author’s surname appears in running text, and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author’s name for a narrative citation. For example:

Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, do not use parentheses. For example

In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

Each work cited must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix).

Both paraphrases and quotations require citations.

A paraphrase restates another’s idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words. Paraphrasing allows you to summarize and synthesize information from one or more sources, focus on significant information, and compare and contrast relevant details.

Authors paraphrase their sources most of the time, rather than directly quoting the sources; When you paraphrase, cite the original work using either the narrative or parenthetical citation format. Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation, you may include one (in addition to the author and year) when it would help interested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work (e.g., a book).

Webster-Stratton (2016) described a case example of a 4-year-old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother; in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother’s empathy for her child (pp. 152–153).

direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work or from your own previously published work. It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style. Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing in case reproducing an exact definition, an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said).

For quotations of fewer than 40 words, add quotation marks around the words and incorporate the quote into your own text—there is no additional formatting needed. Do not insert an ellipsis at the beginning and/or end of a quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis.

Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).

For a direct quotation, always include a full citation (parenthetical or narrative) in the same sentence as the quotation, including the page number (or other location information, e.g., paragraph number). Place a parenthetical citation either immediately after the quotation or at the end of the sentence. For a narrative citation, include the author and year in the sentence and then place the page number or other location information in parentheses after the quotation.

If the quotation precedes the narrative citation, put the page number or location information after the year and a comma. If the citation appears at the end of a sentence, put the end punctuation after the closing parenthesis for the citation.

  • Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material.

Format quotations of 40 words or more as block quotations:

  • Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. Double-space the entire block quotation. Do not add extra space before or after it. If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in.
  • Either cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation.
  • Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.

Block quotation with the parenthetical citation:

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

Block quotation with the narrative citation:

Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:

Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

The following are general guidelines to follow when writing in-text citations:

  • Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in reference list entries match those in the corresponding in-text citations.
  • Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. The works you cite may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data.
  • Readers may find a long string of citations difficult to understand, especially if they are using assistive technology such as a screen reader; therefore, include only those citations needed to support your immediate point.
  • Cite primary sources when possible, and cite secondary sources sparingly.
  • Cite sources to document all facts and figures that you mention that are not common knowledge.
  • To cite a specific part of a source, provide an author–date citation for the work plus information about the specific part.
  • Even when sources cannot be retrieved (e.g., because they are personal communications), still credit them in the text (however, avoid using online sources that are no longer recoverable).

Layout Formats

General: Use Times New Roman font of size 12 points. The paragraph must be justified and separated from one another with a single space. Line spacing must be ‘Double’.

Page layout: Format your article so that it can be printed on A4 size paper with a provision of the left, right, and top margin of 2.5 cm. The bottom margin must be 4 cm.

Major heading: All major headings (ABSTRACT, KEYWORDS, INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND REFERENCES) should be in upper case or capital letters (14 points bold) ‘centre aligned’.

Sub-headings: Use a font size of 12 points bold. To be typed on a separate line and ‘left aligned’ first letter of the first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letter) e.g. Socio-economic and psychological characteristics.

Sub-sub headings: Use a font size of 10 points bold, in italics, and ‘left aligned’. To be typed in a separate line with use with left margin. The first letter of the first word to be in upper case (capital letter) and all other letters in lower case (small letters)

Table formats: Tables have to be placed in the appropriate place in the text. They should be prepared using the Table facility of Microsoft Word. Tables must have a Table caption on the top of the Table. The first letter of the first word of the caption should be in upper case (capital letters) and all other letters in lower case (small letters). A research paper should not have more than seven Tables.

Graphic formats: Only computer-generated charts of figures (as a part of Microsoft word or GIF of JPEG files) or photographs relevant to the contents of the paper will be accepted.

Acronyms: You have to spell out the acronym for its first occurrence followed by the acronym within parenthesis. Example: Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) or Training and visit (T & V).

Plagiarism: Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyrighted material, and include an acknowledgment of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under new authorship in a different or the same language, is plagiarism.

Other policies: Articles forwarded to the editor for publication are understood to be offered to the Indian Journal of Extension Education exclusively and the copyrights automatically stand transferred to the Indian Society of Extension Education. It is also understood that the authors have obtained the approval of their department, faculty, or institute in cases where such permission is necessary. The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the authors thereof. Proof correction should be in Track Change mode. All queries marked in the article should be answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of typesetting and facts. The proofs should be returned within 3 days. The alternation in author's name is not permitted at any later stage after the article is submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.

Article certificate: The article certificate duly signed by all the authors should be mailed in original to Chief Editor ISEE. In absence of the article certificate, it will not be published.

Peer Review Process

The practice of peer review is to ensure that only good science is published. It is an objective process at the heart of good scholarly publishing and is carried out by all reputable scientific journals. Our referees play a vital role in maintaining the high standards of Transport Policy and all manuscripts are peer-reviewed following the procedure outlined below.

Initial manuscript evaluation The Editorial desk first evaluates all manuscripts and it is possible for them to be rejected at this stage. Manuscripts rejected at this stage may be suffering from one or more of the reasons like not being as per the author's guidelines, lack of originality, serious scientific flaws, poor grammar or language, or outside the aims and scope of the journal. Those that meet the minimum criteria are passed on to 2 experts in the field for review.

Type of Peer Review: Blind review policy is applied where the referee remains anonymous throughout the process. Referees are matched to the paper according to their expertise. One referee out of two is tried to be the Zonal Editor of the Indian Society of Extension Education. Referees are asked to evaluate whether the manuscript: - Is original - Is methodologically sound - Follows appropriate ethical and author guidelines - Have results clearly presented and support the conclusions - Correctly referenced previous relevant work, Is Language appropriate, etc. The review form is also asked to be filled out by the reviewer for each manuscript.

How long does the review process take? The time required for the review process varies as per the response of the referees. Normally one week time is given to the reviewer to respond regarding the acceptance of the assignment. Once the reviewer accepts the assignment he/ she is supposed to complete the task within the next seven days. The referee report is sent to the author(s) with recommendations made by the referees, which usually include verbatim comments by the referees. Revised manuscripts are received by the editor and returned to the initial referees (if recommended at the first stage) who may then recommend revision of the manuscript/ acceptance or rejection of the manuscript. In case of minor revision, the revised manuscript is checked by the chief editor/editors for its suitability. Finally, the Editor's decision as per the recommendations of the referees will be sent to the author.

Final report: A final decision to accept or reject the manuscript will be sent to the author along with any recommendations made by the referees, and may include verbatim comments by the referees.

Editor's Decision is final: Referees advise the Chief Editor, who is responsible for the final decision to accept or reject the article.

Becoming a referee: Any life member of the Indian Society of Extension Education may be selected as the referee for the manuscripts submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education. To become a referee, one needs to seek a life membership in the Indian Society of Extension Education. Life membership is open to anyone with a post-graduate degree in Extension Education/ Agricultural Extension/ Dairy Extension/ Agricultural Communication/ Home Science Extension/ Fisheries Extension/ Veterinary Extension and allied social sciences. Ordinary membership is open to all those who are interested in the field of extension education. Student membership is open for any student of university/ technical college/ research institute/ college/ technical school perusing a Master's or Doctoral degree in any of the branch (agriculture/ dairy/ veterinary/ home science/ fisheries etc.) of extension education.

The list of referees is updated regularly

Publication Frequency

The Indian Journal of Extension Education is a quarterly publication of the Indian Society of Extension Education, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012. The publisher, ISSN number, frequency, and publication schedule are as follows:

Publisher: Indian Society of Extension Education
Online ISSN: 2454-552X
Print ISSN: 0537- 1996
Number of issues per year: 4
Frequency: Quarterly
Review Process: Double Blind Peer Review, Refereed Journal
Month(s) of publication: March (April- June issue), June (July- September issue), September (October-December issue), and December (January-March issue)

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

PUBLICATION ETHICS AND MALPRACTICE STATEMENT

Indian Journal of Extension Education is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. The journal follows the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of malpractice. All the editors, authors, and reviewers of the Indian Journal of Extension Education agree upon standards of proper ethical behavior and accept the responsibility for fulfilling the following duties and responsibilities as set by the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Editors.  Our key expectations of authors, peer-reviewers, and editors, and the penalty for malpractice are as follows:

Manuscripts submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) are evaluated entirely on the basis of their scientific content. There are no publication charges. All possible measures are taken to uphold the highest standards of publication ethics and to prevent malpractices. Authors who submit papers to our Journals attest that their work is original and unpublished and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. In addition, authors confirm that their paper is their own original work, that has not been copied or plagiarized, in whole or in part, from other works, and if the authors have used the works of others the same has been appropriately cited or quoted. Our publication ethics and malpractice statement is based on the guidelines for journal editors developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The chief editor and the editors of the Indian Journal of Extension Education are responsible for

  • Deciding which of the manuscripts submitted to the journal should be published. In making these decisions, they are guided by the policies of the journal (Guidelines for Submission and Publication of Manuscripts, available at  https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about  and by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism;
  • Providing guidance to, authors and reviewers on everything that is expected of them and also a description of peer review processes;
  • Providing new reviewer members with guidelines on everything that is expected of them and keeping existing members updated on new policies and developments;
  • Evaluating manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic and intellectual merit, without regard to the author(s)' race, age, gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnic origin, religious belief, citizenship, political orientation, or social class;
  • Ensuring a fair and unbiased double-blind peer review of the manuscripts and that all information related to them is kept confidential. They also ensure that both authors' and peer reviewers' identities are protected;
  • Ensuring that appropriate reviewers are selected;
  • Developing and maintaining a database of suitable reviewers and updating it on the basis of reviewer performance;
  • Ensuring that unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript are not used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author;
  • Taking reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints are presented concerning a submitted or published manuscript.
  • Publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies whenever needed.

Authors' Responsibilities

  • Authors should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable;
  • Authors should not submit the same manuscript simultaneously to more than one publication at a time. This constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable;
  • Authors must ensure that they have written original works and that any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources have been appropriately credited and referenced;
  • Authors submitting their works for publication as original articles confirm that the submitted works represent their own contributions and have not been copied or plagiarized in whole or in part from other works without clearly citing the source. Authors should cite relevant publications;
  • Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable;
  • Authors must ensure that the manuscript has not been published elsewhere;
  • Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Organizations, respondents, funding agencies of research, etc. may be acknowledged while online submitting the research in appropriate columns;
  • The corresponding author with the journal should ensure that all appropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript and that there is a full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication;
  • Authors should disclose financial or other conflicts of interest that might influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support should be disclosed;
  • When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editors and cooperate with them to retract or correct the manuscript. 
  • To submit the article certificate, Contribution certificate, Competing interest form, and the Conflicts of Interest Statement duly signed by all the authors before its publication (https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about)

Reviewers' Responsibilities

  • Peer review assists the chief editor and editorial board in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript;
  • Any reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted;
  • Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents;
  • Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage;
  • Reviewers must report to the chief editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author's part;
  • Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments so that authors can use them for improving the paper;
  • Reviewers evaluate manuscripts based on content without regard to the authors' race, age, gender, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, disability, religious belief, citizenship, political orientation, or social class;
  • Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
  • Reviewers are expected to fill up the review form for each manuscript they are evaluating.

Publisher's Responsibilities

As publisher of the Indian Journal of Extension Education is the Indian Society of Extension Education through its elected President and ACS publishers has been identified as registering agency for DOI, submitting data to crossref and other indexing agencies. The publisher;

  • Provides practical support to the chief editor and editorial board of the Indian Journal of Extension Education so that they can follow the Code of Conduct for the Journal;
  • Ensures the autonomy of editorial decisions;
  • Protects intellectual property and copyright;
  • Ensures that good practice is maintained to the standards defined above.

Publication Responsibility

Journal takes reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of manuscripts where research misconduct has occurred. In case of seriously flawed articles, the complete retraction of the article will ensue.

Journal demonstrates that care has been taken to ensure high ethical and professional standards. Editors will promptly respond to possible misconduct in the publishing process including authors and reviewers.

Copyright and licensing information are clearly described on the journal's website. The copyright of each manuscript published is automatically transferred to the Indian Journal of Extension Education and is mentioned in each article.

Journal clearly indicates plans for electronic backup and preservation of access to the journal content in the event a journal is no longer published. This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration.

Corrections and retractions

When errors are identified in published articles, the publisher will consider what action is required and may consult the editors and the authors' institution(s).

Errors by the authors may be corrected by a corrigendum and errors by the publisher by an erratum.

Retracting a publication is considered  if:

• They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of a major error (eg, miscalculation or experimental error) or as a result of fabrication (eg, of data) or falsification (eg, image manipulation)

• It constitutes plagiarism • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources or disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification (ie, cases of redundant publication).

• It contains material or data without authorisation for use.

• Copyright has been infringed or there is some other serious legal issue (eg, libel, privacy)

• It reports unethical research

• It has been published solely on the basis of a compromised or manipulated peer review process

• The author(s) failed to disclose a major competing interest (aka, conflict of interest) that, in the view of the editor, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.

Notices of retraction are:

•  Linked to the retracted article wherever possible (ie, in all online versions)

• Clearly identify the retracted article (eg, by including the title and authors in the retraction heading or citing the retracted article)

• Clearly identified as a retraction (ie, distinct from other types of correction or comment)

• Be published promptly to minimise harmful effects

• Freely available to all readers (ie, not behind access barriers or available only to subscribers)

• State who is retracting the article

• State the reason(s) for retraction  very objective, factual, and avoid inflammatory language

If there are errors that significantly affect the conclusions or there is evidence of misconduct, this may require retraction or an expression of concern following the COPE Retraction Guidelines.

All authors are asked to agree to the content of the notice.

Publisher and Editorial Board Details

Publisher

 Dr. U. S. Gautam, President, Indian Society of Extension Education, Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012 

Email: presidentisee@gmail.com

DOI Registering agency

ACS Publisher, Plot No. 100/1, Abchal Nagar, Nilothi Extension, New Delhi – 110041 and London, 45, Olieve Street, London.

Email: acspublisher@gmail.com, support@acspublisher.com

Editorial Board details

a) Chief Editor

1. Dr. Manjeet Singh Nain, Principal Scientist, Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012.

https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=I3OiYjUAAAAJ&hl=hi 

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ms-Nain 

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7526-1091

email: chiefeditorisee@gmail.com 

b) Zonal Editors

1. Dr. Kalyan Ghadei, Professor, Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP  https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=7g0b4a8AAAAJ&hl=en http:/orcid.org/0000-0001-6548-4673

 Email:kalyan@bhu.ac.in 

2. Dr. Rajeev Bairathi, Professor, Directorate of Extension Education, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur, India, 313001, 

ORCID  https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8200-2189

E-mail rbairathi@rediffmail.com ,  

3.  Dr. Himansu Kumar De, Principal Scientist, ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751002 https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=k7oHFtYAAAAJ&hl=en   http:/orcid.org/ 0000 0002 6183 3618  Email: bhuthnath@gmail.com

4. Dr. V P S Yadav, Professor (Extension Education, KVK, CCSHAU, Faridabad (Haryana) https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=_RTo0lAAAAAJ&  E-Mail: vpsyadav7269@gmail.com 

5. Dr. Shrishail Sharanappa Dolli, Professor (Agricultural Extension) University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India, E-mail: shridolli@gmail.com  

Article certificate 

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXTENSION EDUCATION (http://www.iseeiari.org)

 (ISSN0537-1996 eISSN 2454-552X )

ARTICLE CERTIFICATE

(To be submitted in original to Chief Editor, Indian Journal of Extension Education)

Article ID: ------------ (Electronic Submission)        Dated …………….

Article entitled: ……………………………………………………………………………………… 

Modified title, if any:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author(s) name : …………,  …………….   

It is certified that:

  1. The article has been seen by all the authors (signatures given below), who are satisfied with its form and content.
  2. The sequence of names of authors in the by-line is as per their relative contribution to this experiment, giving due credit to all who made notable contributions to it.
  3. The address of the organization where the research was conducted is given in the by-line (changes of author’s address is given in the footnote).
  4. The experiment was carried out during (year) ………….. and the article is submitted soon after completion of the experiment/ lapse of ………. months (Mention time in months) at ……………… (mention Institute/University)
  5. The article is exclusive to this journal, and the results reported here have not been sent (and will not be sent during its consideration by this journal) for publication in any other journal.
  6. The article has not been rejected for publication in any other journal/rejected in _______________ whose comments are attached (such a rejection does not disqualify the article for consideration in this journal).
  7. It is based/not based on a part/complete M.Sc./M.Phil/ Ph. D thesis of the first author, who submitted the thesis (university, place).
  8. Correct data and facts are presented in the article.
  9. I/we agree to abide by the objective comments of referees and do agree to modify the article into a short note as per the recommendation, for publication in the Indian Journal of Extension Education.
  10. If published in the Indian Journal of Extension Education, the copyright of this article would vest with the Indian Society of Extension Education, Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012 who will have the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad engaged in reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information contained in it, and neither we nor our legal heirs will have any claims on royalty. I/ we are well aware of the recent developments and issues related to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.
  11. The lead/ corresponding author is a member of the Indian Society of Extension Education, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi (S-2504)

Signature of the authors with the date (in the same sequence as appears in the article), their names designations, emails, and present correspondence address:

S. No.

Signature with date

Name in full and designation

Present official address

Subscription/ Membership

number

1.

     

 

2.

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

Optional

The above certificate is correct to the best of my knowledge and I have no objection to the publication of the article cited above in the Indian Journal of Extension Education.

 

Signature and address of the Head of the department/head of the Institute

  

 Conflicts of Interest Statement

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXTENSION EDUCATION (http://www.iseeiari.org)

(ISSN0537-1996  eISSN 2454-552X )

 Manuscript title & Submission Id :  ………………………. To be typed or written clearly

The authors whose names are listed immediately below certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’  bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

 Author names & affiliations:

1

2

3

4

5

 The authors whose names are listed immediately below report the following details of affiliation or involvement in an organization or entity with a financial or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Please specify the nature of the conflict on a separate sheet of paper if the space below is inadequate.

 Author names& affiliations:

1

2

3

 This statement is signed by all the authors to indicate agreement that the above information is true and correct (a photocopy of this form may be used if there are more authors): 

Author's name (typed)

Author's signature

Date

 

     
     
     

  

 Disclosure of Interest

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXTENSION EDUCATION

(ISSN 0537-1996, eISSN2454-552X)

(http://www.iseeiari.org)

DISCLOSURE OF INTEREST FORM

Date:

Your Name:

Manuscript Title:

Manuscript number:

In the interest of transparency, we ask you to disclose all relationships/activities/interests listed below that are related to the content of your manuscript.  “Related” means any relation with for-profit or not-for-profit third parties whose interests may be affected by the content of the manuscript.  Disclosure represents a commitment to transparency and does not necessarily indicate a bias.  If you are in doubt about whether to list a relationship/activity/interest, it is preferable that you do so.

The author’s relationships/activities/interests should be defined broadly.  In item #1 below, report all support for the work reported in this manuscript without a time limit.  For all other items, the time frame for disclosure is the past 36 months.

Item

Name all entities with whom you have this relationship or indicate none (add rows as needed)

Specifications/Comments (e.g., if payments were made to you or to your institution)

Time frame: Since the initial planning of the work (if not applicable, may write ‘None’

All support for the present manuscript (e.g., funding, provision of study materials,  writing, article processing charges, etc.)

No time limit for this item

 

 

Time frame: past 36 months

Grants or contracts from any entity (if not indicated in item #1 above).

 

 

Royalties or licenses

 

 

Consulting fees

 

 

Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events

 

 

Payment for expert testimony

 

 

Support for attending meetings and/or travel

 

 

Patents planned, issued or pending

 

 

Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board

 

 

Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid

 

 

Stock or stock options

 

 

Receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services

 

 

Other financial or non-financial interests

 

 

Please place an “X” next to the following statement to indicate your agreement.

I certify that I have answered every question and have not altered the wording of any of the questions on this form

Signature with date

 

 Authors’ Contribution Form

INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXTENSION EDUCATION

(ISSN 0537-1996, eISSN2454-552X)

(http://www.iseeiari.org)

(Introducing the authors, their order of appearance, and their contribution)

We, the authors (names and orders of appearance are as the below table), by awareness of the non-changeability of the names, orders of appearance, and information of authors (no authors can be added or removed at all) declare that we all have contributed in producing this article (doing the researches or writing the article) and no names have been added without having an effective role to the article. From the following authors, row No. ……… is introduced as the correspondent author whose name will come as this on the published article. Corresponding author Email: …………………………………………

Order

 

Name with email address (1)

Affiliation (2)

Last Degree with the subject (3)

Contribution (4)

Percent of contribution (5)

Signature (6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1The whole name of each person as it should be written in the article (First and middle name may be abbreviated but not the last name/ Surname);

2 Affiliation for each author must be accurate as "Group or Department, School or Research Centre, University or Institute, City, Country, Pin code;

3 Such as Ph.D., M.Sc., etc., and subjects like Agril Extension, Veterinary Extension, or Home Science Extension.

4 Main/ Subsidiary Researcher, Data Analyzer, Writer of the Introduction, Writer of the Discussion, or Methodologist; etc.

5The contribution must be declared as a percentage (must be 100% as a whole).

6 Each author MUST sign his/her name row.

*The corresponding author must have a significantly higher contribution (in percentage) than any other coauthor

**The contribution of the writer of introduction (10%), Writer of discussion (5%), Data analyzer(10%), methodologist (10%), reviser of the manuscript(10%), Chairperson in case of student research (30%), Co-chairperson in student research(15%), Member from Major/minor subject(5%), CO-PI of the project (30%), Project Associate (20%), Cooperating scientists/ technicians (10%), Research Associate(5%) should not exceed ideally as mentioned in parenthesis.  

 

 

Submission Template

 
 

The Space for Title of the Manuscript

Title Should Not Exceed 14 Words and Must be Representative of the Content.

The title should be in ‘Capitalize Each Word'

 
 
 

ABSTRACT

The abstract is a mini version of full paper. Abstract should contain year of study, brief account of principal objective(s), methods used, principal results, and main conclusion in understandable form so that the reader need not refer to the whole article except for details.. It should be written in simple past tense, in complete sentences, limited to 150-200 words. It should not have references to literature, illustrations, and tables.

 
 

KEYWORDS

The keywords best describe the nature of the research after the abstract. Provide a list of 5 to 8 keywords (indexing terms). The first letter of each keyword should be in upper case or capital letters. As major words in the title are not used in the subject index, appropriate words from the title (or synonyms) should be listed as keywords.

 
 
 

INTRODUCTION

The introduction provides a rationale for the study, written in the present tense, and refers to established knowledge in literature. It should contain the nature and scope of the problem, a review of relevant literature, a hypothesis, approach, and a justification for this approach. No trade name should be used and Industrial products should be referred to by their chemical names (give ingredients in parentheses) at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. It should be between 450-500 words without sub heading/s. The word et al, if used in any in-text citation must not be in italics.

 
 
 

METHODOLOGY

The’ methodology describes what was done- experimental model or field study. It should be an exhaustive one (in logical order, with sufficient details to reproduce the procedure) without tables and figures (approximately 300- 400 words). The subheadings must be avoided as far as possible in methodology. It should be written in the simple past tense. Where the methods are well known, the citation of standard work is sufficient. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Experimental materials and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Calculations and the validity of deductions made from them should be checked and validated. Units of measurement, symbols, and standard abbreviations should conform to international standards. Metric measurements are preferred, and dosages should be expressed entirely in metric units (SI units). Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. Avoid subheadings in the methodology. 

 
 
 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

         The results and discussion should preferably be combined to avoid repetition. Results present the data, the facts- what you found/ calculated/ discovered/ observed. It should be written in the simple past tense to report your observations on the experiment/fieldwork, and its comparison/contrast. Only the salient results need to be presented instead of writing the whole tabular/ graphical data in text.  Too many paragraphs are discouraged; one concept must be dealt with in one place and time in one paragraph. The Discussion shows the relationship among the facts, it puts results in the context of previous research, and the emphasis must be on presenting results in relation to established knowledge. The discussion should contain trends, relationships, generalizations, any exceptions, outlying data, and agreement/ disagreement with previous research with reasons. The discussion should be written in the present tense. IJEE does not appreciate more than three subheadings in Results and Discussion. Avoid making too many tables just for the number's sake, do not give socio-personal profile table and text till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so). Ideally, Results and Discussion should range between 2000-3000 words.

 
 
 

          Results should be presented in tabular form and graphs when feasible but not both. The colour figures and plates are printed when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Mean results with the relevant standard errors should be presented rather than detailed data. The data should be so arranged that the tables would fit in the normal layout of the page. Self-explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets and carry appropriate titles. The titles of tables/figures should not be more than 12 words. The tabular matter should not exceed 20% of the text. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. All tables should be cited in the text. If an explanation is necessary, use an abbreviation in the body of the table (e.g. ND) and explain clearly in footnotes what the abbreviation means. References to footnotes in a table are specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lowercase p to indicate probability values (i.e. p<0.05). In general, use numerals, when two numbers appear adjacent to each other, spell out the first (i.e. three districts were selected rather than 3 districts were selected). In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10 use numerals for all (i.e. 2 splits, 6 plants were selected). Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Spell it out or rearrange the sentence. Abbreviate the terms hour (h), minute (min) and second (sec) when used with a number in the text but spell them out when they are used alone. Do not use a hyphen to indicate inclusiveness (e.g. use 12 to 14 years or wk 3 and 4, not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4). Use Arabic numerals with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3%, and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc. 

        The paper should always be written in the third person form (Avoid I /We / Research Team / Project Team etc.).There is always a different style for paper writing and thesis writing, try to be precise enough without compromising the quality. Avoid too many paragraphs; one concept must be dealt with in one place and time in one paragraph. There must not be 3-4 subheadings in the result and discussion and the table & figures must be limited to a maximum of 5 for the research paper and 3 for the research note. Avoid presenting the same data in text, table, and figures verbatim. Avoid making too many tables just for the number sake, also avoid giving socio personal profiles till it is utmost necessary and has some bearing on the other part of the research (most times it is not so). Also discouraged too many columns in the table, like; number/ frequency in one column, the percentage in the second, and rank in the third, only one column showing percent will be sufficient.

       Figures (histogram/pie chart/another type of chart) should be in editable rich text material with the backup data file. The image of the figure or jpg/jpeg is not allowed.

 
 
 

CONCLUSION

The conclusion’ summarizes principal findings and should not be more than one paragraph (100-150 words) after the discussion and explain in general terms the implications of the findings of this research. It has to be written in the present tense and the emphasis must be on what should now be accepted as established knowledge. The conclusion should relate back to the introduction and hypothesis. The implication, the significance of your results, or any practical application must find a place in the conclusion. Abbreviations, acronyms, or citations should not be used here. It should not be a repetition of the abstract.

 

 
 
 

REFERENCES

The REFERENCES lists should be typed in alphabetical order. The reference list should be first sorted alphabetically by author(s) and secondly chronologically. A recent issue of the journal should be consulted for the methods of citation of REFERENCES in the text as well as at the end of the article. The Indian Journal of Extension Education (IJEE) follows common APA Style references and citations in text. Journal names should never be abbreviated. For more information on references and reference examples, see Chapters 8, 9, and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.). Also, see the Reference Examples pages on the APA Style website. A few examples of reference sections as well as in-text citations are given at https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about/submissions  :

      A minimum of three references from the previous three years' issues of IJEE available at epubs only are encouraged. There must be at least 15 references from the related research. It is appreciable if the references are from Social Science/ Extension Education/ Communication/ Entrepreneurship/ Management/ Education related journals. References from other non-social science journals are not appreciated. References should not be abbreviated especially the journal name (as per IJEE style). Check capitalization Vs sentence case properly. In references, the ‘&’ should be used instead of ‘and’ before the last author's name, whereas in the text it should be ‘and’. The word ‘et al’ must not be in italics in the text. The reference, in general, should not be older than 15 years and should be from published sources only. Avoid unpublished thesis (older than five years) references. Wherever possible provide the URL of the reference. Unauthenticated references may lead to the rejection of the manuscript.

 
 
 

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST STATEMENTS

Please specify the nature of the conflict and details of affiliation or involvement in an organization or entity with a financial or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

 
 
 

GENERAL

      Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyrighted material and include an acknowledgment of the source in their article. They should be aware that the unreferenced use of published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, or submission of a complete paper under new authorship in a different or the same language, is plagiarism.

     Articles forwarded to the editor for publication are understood to be offered to the Indian Journal of Extension Education exclusively and the copyrights automatically stand transferred to the Indian Society of Extension Education. It is also understood that the authors have obtained the approval of their department, faculty, or institute in cases where such permission is necessary. The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for facts or opinions expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the authors thereof. Proof correction should be in Track Change mode. All queries marked in the article should be answered. Proofs are supplied for a check-up of the correctness of typesetting and facts. The proofs should be returned within 3 days. The alternation in the author's name is not permitted at any later stage after the article is submitted to the Indian Journal of Extension Education.

        The article certificate, Author Contribution form, Disclosure of Competing Interest & Declaration of Conflict of Interest duly signed by all the authors should be mailed in original to Chief Editor, ISEE on acceptance of the manuscript in the prescribed format (available at https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/ijee/about). In absence of these certificates, the manuscript processing will immediately be stopped and will not be published.

 

                                       

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