Integrated management of pests and diseases for the successful cultivation of Coconut, Arecanut and Cocoa
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Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and arecanut (Areca catechu L.) are the palms of the Arecaceae family, cultivated by millions of small and marginal farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) on the other hand, is grown as an intercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens for its beans which are used in confectionary industry. All these three crops are cultivated mainly in humid tropics. Being perennial trees, these crops need to withstand the adverse climatic vagaries, including the outbreak of biotic and abiotic stresses throughout their life. Though these crops are comparatively hardy, they are affected by several diseases, some are lethal and some cause economic loss by reducing the quality/quantity of nut yield.
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