Cropping Systems Intensification in the Coastal Zone of the Ganges Delta: Opportunities and Risks


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Authors

  • R W BELL Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA - 6150, Australia
  • M MAINUDDIN CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT - 2601, Australia
  • E G BARRETT-LENNARD Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA - 6150, Australia
  • S K SARANGI ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town - 743 329, West Bengal, India
  • M MANIRUZZAMAN Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh
  • K BRAHMACHARI Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India
  • K K SARKER Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh
  • D BURMAN ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town - 743 329, West Bengal, India
  • D S GAYDON CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Brisbane, QLD - 4067, Australia
  • J M KIRBY CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT - 2601, Australia
  • M GLOVER CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT - 2601, Australia
  • MD HARUNOR RASHID Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh
  • M SAHIDUL ISLAM KHAN Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh
  • M E KABIR Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna - 9208, Bangladesh
  • M A RAHMAN Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh
  • M B HOSSAIN Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh

Keywords:

Aus rice, Crop establishment, Crop stress, Drought, Kharif rice, Salinity, Time of sowing, Waterlogging, Zero-till potato

Abstract

The coastal zone of the Ganges delta has many constraints and threats that have hampered development. However, recent research indicates that there are numerous viable options for cropping systems intensification that have yet to be fully exploited. The main opportunity involves changing the cropping season to use stored water with a low solute potential in the rabi season and to harvest crops early to avoid crop stress from waterlogging, salinity/drought, heat and or storms. Early planting of rabi season crops requires harvest of kharif rice 15 to 30 days earlier. Several earlier maturing cultivars have been identified with yield gains of 0.5 to 1 t ha-1. The early harvest of kharif rice opens up opportunities for promising new crops for the rabi season such as zero tillage potatoes. Moreover, for a range of other rabi crops (e.g. wheat) early sowing results in higher yield potential. Realising the higher yield potential depends on early drainage of excess floodwater, and a drainage system to mitigate the risk of heavy rainfall events in the rabi season. Canal and pond water remains mostly below 4 dS m-1 and hence is suitable for irrigation during the rabi season but the volume available is limited. Low cost drip irrigation was shown to be highly profitable and is a potential technology for value addition of the scarce water supplies. In the coastal zone, current kharif season rice supplies are not sufficient to meet food security needs. Aus rice was successfully grown at a number of locations and produced good yields (4.0-4.5 t ha-1). A diverse range of new crops were successfully grown especially vegetables for which local markets exist. However, dry season cropping in the coastal zone involves risks, particularly from heavy rainfall either at the end of the monsoon season or from February onwards and climate analysis suggests the frequency of these heavy rainfall events has increased in the last 40 years. The technologies developed and the risk management strategies required will need to be adapted to the variation in rainfall and river water salinity across the coastal zone of the Ganges delta.

Author Biography

  • E G BARRETT-LENNARD, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA - 6150, Australia

    Land Management, Agriculture Discipline,

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Submitted

2019-10-06

Published

2019-11-14

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Section

Articles

How to Cite

BELL, R. W., MAINUDDIN, M., BARRETT-LENNARD, E. G., SARANGI, S. K., MANIRUZZAMAN, M., BRAHMACHARI, K., SARKER, K. K., BURMAN, D., GAYDON, D. S., KIRBY, J. M., GLOVER, M., RASHID, M. H., KHAN, M. S. I., KABIR, M. E., RAHMAN, M. A., & HOSSAIN, M. B. (2019). Cropping Systems Intensification in the Coastal Zone of the Ganges Delta: Opportunities and Risks. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 37(2), 153-161. https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/JISCAR/article/view/94084