Effect of Long-Term Fertilizer and Farm yard Manure Application on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in a Vertisol under Soybean–Wheat Cropping Sequence
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Keywords:Phosphorus-balance, grain yield, uptake, organic carbon, nutrient management, long-term fertilizer management
The continuous application of inorganic fertilizers alone or in conjuction with organic manure for the last 43 years may affect the phosphorus (P) balance and its fractions and it is important from view planning a nutrient management strategy for optimizing crop productivity. Therefore, the present study was carried out in 2015-16 to assess the impact of the long-term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manure i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) on P fractions in a Vertisol, which is an essential aspect in probing the mechanisms of soil P accumulation and mitigating its losing risk to the environment. The findings of the present investigation indicated that the soil organic carbon, soil available P, and various P fractions were increased significantly with 100% NPK and 150% NPK treatments over control in both surface and sub-surface soils. The highest values of available P and various P fractions were recorded in 100% NPK + 5 t FYM ha-1 treatment. Among the various P fractions, Ca-P form was the dominant P fraction. The relative contents of these fractions were in order, Ca-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Occluded P >Saloid-P and these were higher in surface than the sub-surface soils. Application of balanced dose of fertilizers with or without FYM improved the crop productivity and P uptake by crops. The findings further revealed that the appreciable increase in available P status in soil in all the treatments except control and 100% N alone treatments. The apparent P balance increased with an increase in the quantity of P applied from 50 to 150%. Further, applying the recommended dose of N, P and K with 5 t FYM ha-1 observed the highest grain yields of soybean (1200 kg ha-1) and wheat (4344 kg ha-1), respectively, over the control plot. Phosphorus fractions exhibited a significant and positive correlation with yield. Thus, the balanced use of fertilizers continuously alone or in combination with organic manure, is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and productivity of crops.
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