Effect of supplemental malic acid on methane mitigation in paddy straw based complete diet for sustainable animal production in indigenous dairy cattle

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  • A BHARATHIDHASAN Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 009 India



Dairy cattle, In vitro, In vivo methane reduction, Malic acid


A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental malic acid on mitigation of methane emission for dairy cattle by in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro finding was validated by in vivo feeding trial in indigenous dairy cattle. Ten dairy cattle with uniform milk production were selected and divided into two groups with five animals each and they were fed with and without supplementation of malic acid at 0.39% in 60% paddy straw and 40% concentrate mixture based complete diet. The malic acid at 0.39% was the minimum level which resulted in highly significant reduction of methane by 15.95% and methane (ml) per 100 mg of truly digested substrate by 15.69%, respectively than control in in vitro study. The methane emission per animal per day and per kg dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly decreased by 3.26% and 3.11%, respectively in malic acid supplemented group than control. The methane emission per kg milk production was significantly reduced by 5.43% in malic acid supplemented group than control. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and propionic acid were significantly increased by 2.69% and 11.71%, respectively in malic acid supplemented group than control. It was concluded that the supplementation of malic acid at 0.39% of paddy straw based complete diet significantly reduced the methane emission per animal per day and per kg milk production than control in indigenous dairy cattle.


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How to Cite

BHARATHIDHASAN, A. (2022). Effect of supplemental malic acid on methane mitigation in paddy straw based complete diet for sustainable animal production in indigenous dairy cattle. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 92(11), 1314–1319. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v92i11.100033