Comparative analysis of intradermal tuberculin test and γ-interferon assay for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis
Keywords:Bovine tuberculosis, ELISPOT, IFN-γ, Tuberculin test
The present study was carried out in and around Anand district of Gujarat with the aim to assess the sensitivity and specificity of IFN-γ assay as compared to intradermal tuberculin test for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis during the period 2011-12. The prevalence of bovine TB in the cattle was 26.19% by TST and 38.49% by IFN- γ assay. Breed wise, highest prevalence of bovine TB was found in Gir (38.96%), followed by Triple cross (23.95%) and Kankrej (16.45%) by TST; while by IFN- γ assay, highest prevalence was observed in Triple cross (42.70%). Age wise, highest prevalence of bovine TB was found in adults (37.90%) followed by calves (26.66%) and heifers (11.22%) by TST; while by IFN-γ assay, highest prevalence was observed in calves (66.66%) followed by adults (44.35%) and heifers (22.44%). Sex wise, more prevalence of bovine TB was found in males (56.25%) than in females (21.81%) by TST; while by IFN-γ assay, more prevalence was observed in females (39.25%) than in males (31.25%). Sensitivity and specificity of TST in detecting bovine TB were 27.27% and 57.52% respectively, compared to IFN-γ assay. ELISPOT assay showed 34.78% animals were found positive for bovine TB. IFN-γ assay showed better sensitivity in detecting bovine TB at younger age compared to TST, and hence can be useful in timely removal of the infected animals from the herd.
Ameni G, Aseffa A, Engers H, Young D, Hewinson G and Vordermeier M. 2006. Cattle husbandry in Ethiopia is a predominant factor affecting the pathology of bovine tuberculosis and gamma interferon responses to mycobacterial antigens. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 13: 1030–36.
Bezos J, Roy A, Infantes-Lorenzo J A, Gonzalez I, Venteo A, Romero B, Grau A, Minguez O, Dominguez L and de Juan L. 2018. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 199: 43–52.
Bhavani J V, Dev Chandran, Veerasami M, Parthasarathy S, Vijayan P, Das D, Lakshmi M and Srinivasan A W. 2011. Cloning, expression and purification of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 and their use in the detection of IFN-γ responses in tuberculosis infected cattle. Society for Applied Biotechnology 2: 255–64.
Buddle B M, Ryan T J, Pollock J M, Andersen P and de Lisle G W. 2000. Use of ESAT-6 in the interferon-g test for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis following skin testing. Veterinary Microbiology 80: 37–46.
Casal C, Infantes JA, Risalde MA, Diez-GuerrierA, Dominguez M, Moreno I, Romero B, de Juan L, Saez J L, Juste R, Gortazar C, Dominguez L and Bezos J. 2017. Antibody detection tests improve the sensitivity of tuberculosis diagnosis in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 112: 214–21.
Coad M, Doyle M, Steinbach S, Gormley E, Vordermeier M and Jones G. 2019. Simultaneous measurement of antigen-induced CXCL10 and IFN-γ enhances test sensitivity for bovine TB detection in cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 230: 1–6.
Czerkinsky C C, Nilsson L A, Nygren H, Ouchterlony O and Tarkowski A. 1983. A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for enumeration of specific antibody secreting cells. Journal of Immunological Methods 65: 109–21.
De Lisle G W, Green R S and Buddle B M. 2017. Factors affecting the gamma interferon test in the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2): 198–202.
Dhaliwal N K, Narang D, Chandra M, Filia G and Singh S T. 2020. Evaluation of adenosine deaminase activity in serum of cattle and buffaloes in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Veterinary World 3(1): 110–13.
Domenech R, Goodchild AT, Vordermeier H M, Hewinson R G, Christiansen R S and Hadley C. 2006. Ante mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle: A review of the tuberculin tests, c-interferon assay and other ancillary diagnostic techniques. Research in Veterinary Science 81: 190–210.
Duignan A, Kenny K, Bakker D and Good M. 2019. Tuberculin PPD potency assays in naturally infected tuberculous cattle as a quality control measure in the Irish bovine tuberculosis eradication program. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 6: 328.
El-Sayed A, El-Shannat S, Kamel M, Castañeda-Vazquez M A and Castañeda-Vazquez H. 2016. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in humans and cattle. Zoonoses Public Health 63: 251–64.
Frasca D and Blomberg B B. 2011. Aging impairs murine B cell differentiation and function in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Aging and Disease 2(5): 361–73.
Huda A, Lind P, Kristofferson A B and Jungerson G. 2003. Analysis of repeated tests for interferon-gamma and faecal excretion for diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis in anish cattle. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 94: 95–103.
Kazwala R R, Kambarage D M, Daborn C J, Nyange J, Jiwa S F and Sharp J M. 2001. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communication 25(8): 609–14.
Lalvani A. 2001. Diagnosing tuberculosis infection in the 21st century: New tools to tackle an old enemy. Chest 131: 1898–1906.
Linton P J and Dorshkind K. 2004. Age-related changes in lymphocyte development and function. Nature Immunology 5(2): 133–39.
Mahairas G G, Sabo P J, Hickey M J, Singh D C and Stover C K. 1996. Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis. Journal of Bacteriology 178: 1274–82.
Nwanta J A, Umeononigwe C N, Abonyi G E and Onunkwo J I. 2011. Retrospective study of bovine and human tuberculosis in abattoirs and hospitals in Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 3(7): 329–36.
Olea-Popelka F, Muwonge A, Perera A, Dean A S, Mumford E, Erlacher-Vindeln E, Forcella S, Silk B J, Ditiu L, Idrissi E, Raviglione M, Cosivi O, LoBue P and Fujiwara P I. 2017. Zoonotic tuberculosis in human beings caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a call for action. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 17(1): 21–25.
Parthasarthy S, Veerasami M, Appana G, Chandran D, Das D and Srinivasan A V. 2012. Use of ESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion protein in the bovine interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Journal of Microbiological Methods 90(3): 298–304.
Praud A, Bourély C, Boschiroli M and Dufour B. 2019. Assessment of the specificity of a gamma-interferon test performed with specific antigens to detect bovine tuberculosis, after non-negative results to intradermal tuberculin testing. Veterinary Record doi.org/10.1136/vetreco-2019-000335.
Schiller I, Vordermeier M H, Ray W W, Adam O, Whelan M, Gormley C, Bryce B M, Palmer M, McNair J, Welsh M, Hewinson, G R and Oesch B. 2010. Bovine tuberculosis: Effect of the tuberculin skin test on in vitro interferon gamma responses. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 136: 1–11.
Srinivasan S, Jones G, Veerasami M, Steinbach S, Holder T, Zewude A, Fromsa A, Ameni G, Easterling L, Bakker D, Juleff N, Gifford G, Hewinson R G, Martin Vordermeier H M and Kapur V. 2019. A defined antigen skin test has been developed for the reliable diagnosis and vaccine-based control of bovine tuberculosis. Science Advances 5(7): eaax4899.
Streeck H, Jolin J S, Qi Y, Yassine-Diab B, Johnson R C and Kwon D S. 2009. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses during primary infection are major determinants of the viral set point and loss of CD4+ T cells. Journal of Virology 83: 7641–48.
Thrusfield M V. 2005. Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd Edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Pp. 234–38.
Veerasami M, Moorthy L, Das D, Partasarthy S, Chandran D, Lingla R and Srinivasan V A. 2011. Assessment of Critical Parameters in Blood processing for the Bovine Interferon Gamma ELISPOT Assay to detect Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle in India. Veterinaria Italiana 47: 25–34.
Zhang W, Caspell R, Karulins A Y, Ahmad M, Haicheur N, Abdelsalam A, Johannesen K, Vignard V, Dudzik P, Georgakopoulou K, Mihaylova A, Silina K, Aptisauri N, Adams V, Lehmann PV and McArdle S. 2009. ELISPOT assays provide reproducible results among different laboratories for T- cell immune monitoring-even in hands of ELISPOT- inexperienced investigators. Journal of Immunotoxicology 6: 227–34.
The copyright of the articles published in The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences is vested with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, which reserves the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad, for reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information. The Council has no objection to using the material, provided the information is not being utilized for commercial purposes and wherever the information is being used, proper credit is given to ICAR.