Effect of stress on carcass and meat quality of sheep, goat and pig

Abstract views: 189 / PDF downloads: 179


  • SWAGAT MOHAPATRA Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • SANTWANA PALAI Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • SOUBHAGYA RANJAN PRADHAN West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal
  • SHIVANI DAS Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • AMBIKA PRASAD KHADANGA MAHAPATRA Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • LIPIKA PRIYADARSINI Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • RITUN PATRA Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India
  • NIRUPAMA DALAI Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 003 India



Carcass quality, Goat, Meat quality, Pig, Sheep, Stressors


Domestic animals like sheep, goat and pig are subjected to many chronic stressful conditions regularly. The stressors include handling, transportation, cold, heat, temperament, diseases, parasites and introduction to a new group. Irrespective of the etiology, stress decreases the normal wellbeing and productivity of the animal. Farm animals attempt to deal with these stressors through behavioural and physiological adaptations aimed at restoring homeostasis. When these responses fail, common signs of persistent stress arise. As the symptoms of stress are unidentifiable by the farmers, there can be a significant deterioration in quality and quantity of meat produced. The increasing need for food due to population growth and urbanization has to be met through proper health management
of farm animals. More research is needed to alleviate stress in farm animals and improve product quality and yield. This review paper aims to emphasize on stress factors in farm animals like sheep, goat and pig, and their impact on productivity and meat quality. With a greater understanding of stressors, altered physiological mechanisms, stress adaptability, it would be possible to implement methodologies for stress mitigation in farm animals.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah F A A, Borilova G and Steinhauserova I. 2019. Halal criteria versus conventional slaughter technology. Animals 9(8): 530. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080530

Adzitey F and Nurul H. 2010. Pale soft exudative (PSE) and Dark firm dry (DFD) meats: Causes and measures to reduce these incidences. International Food Research Journal 18(1): 11–20.

Adzitey F and Nurul H. 2011. Pale soft exudative (PSE) and dark firm dry (DFD) meats: Causes and measures to reduce these incidences-a mini review. International Food Research Journal 18(1).

Adzitey F. 2011. Effect of pre-slaughter animal handling on carcass and meat quality. International Food Research Journal 18(2).

Akinwumi A O, Odunsi A A and Omojola A B. 2013. Effect of transportation on mortality rate of cattle at Ogbomoso central abattoir. Proceedings of the 18th and 2nd ASAN. pp. 65. NIAS Joint Annual Conference.

Alarcón A D, Duarte O, Rodríguez F A and Janacua H. 2005. Incidence of PSE and DFD muscle in pigs slaughtered in Mexico’s Bajio region. Técnica Pecuaria en México 43: 335–46.

Al-Dawood A. 2017. Towards heat stress management in small ruminants-A review. Annals of Animal Science 17(1): 59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2016-0068

Apple J K, Dikeman M E, Minton J E, McMurphy R M, Fedde M R, Leith D E and Unruh J A. 1995. Effects of restraint and isolation stress and epidural blockade on endocrine and blood metabolite status, muscle glycogen metabolism, and incidence of dark-cutting longissimus muscle of sheep. Journal of Animal Science 73(8): 2295–2307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7382295x

Bench C, Schaefer A L and Faucitano L. 2008. The welfare of pigs during transport, pp. 161-195. Welfare of Pigs from Birth to Slaughter. (Eds.) Faucitano L and Schaefer A L. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Biswas S, Das A K, Banerjee R and Sharma N. 2007. Effect of electrical stimulation on quality of tender stretched chevon sides. Meat Science 75: 332–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.08.002

Broom D M. 2000. Welfare assessment and welfare problem areas during handling and transport, pp. 43-61. Livestock Handling and Transport. (Ed.) Grandin T. CABI Publishing, New York, USA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851994093.0043

Cetin O and Topcu T. 2009. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality in goat carcasses. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 7(3&4): 101-105.

Channon H A, Payne A M and Warner R D. 2000. Halothane genotype, pre-slaughter handling and stunning method all influence pork quality. Meat Science 56(3): 291–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00056-5

Chulayo A Y and Muchenje V. 2015. A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved meat and meat products. South African Journal of Animal Science 45(5): 452–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i5.2

Chulayo A Y. 2011. ̒Effects of pre-slaughter sheep handling and animal-handling factors on creatine kinase levels and physico-chemical attributes of mutton.̓ MSc. Thesis, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

Čobanović N, Bošković M, Vasilev D, Dimitrijević M, Parunović N, Djordjević J and Karabasil N. 2016. Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and meat quality in a low-input slaughter facility. South African Journal of Animal Science 46(4): 380–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v46i4.6

Dewey C, Haley C, Widowski T, Poljak Z and Friendship R. 2009. Factors associated with in-transit losses of fattening pigs. Animal Welfare 18: 355-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0962728600000750

Dodzi M S and Muchenje V. 2011. Avoidance-related behavioural variables and their relationship to milk yield in pasture-based dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133: 117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2011.04.014

dos Santos T C, Gates R S, de Fátima Souza C, Tinôco I D F F, Cândido M G L and Freitas L C D S R. 2019. Meat quality parameters and the effects of stress: A review. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B(9): 305-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17265/2161-6264/2019.05.001

Driessen B, Van Beirendonck S and Buyse J. 2020. Effects of housing, short distance transport and lairage on meat quality of finisher pigs. Animals 10(5): 788. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050788

Driessen B, Van Beirendonck S and Buyse J. 2020. Effects of transport and lairage on the skin damage of pig carcasses. Animals 10(4): 575. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040575

Ekiz B, Ekiz E E, Kocak O, Yalcintan H and Yilmaz A. 2012. Effect of pre-slaughter management regarding transportation and time in lairage on certain stress parameters, carcass and meat quality characteristics in Kivircik. Meat Science 90: 967–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.042

Etim N N and Oguike M A. 2014. Environmental and management stressors: Implications for reproductive and productive performances of farm animals in the tropics. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 5(2).

Falkowski J, Maslanek A and Flis M. 2001. A note on naked oats as a substitute for wheat and barley for young pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 10(2): 215–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/70061/2001

Faucitano L and Goumon S. 2018. Transport of pigs to slaughter and associated handling, pp. 261–293. Advances in Pig Welfare. Woodhead Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101012-9.00009-5

Faucitano L. 2018. Preslaughter handling practices and their effects on animal welfare and pork quality. Journal of Animal Sciences 96(2): 728–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skx064

Fischer K. 1996. Transport of slaughter animals: Effects, weaknesses, measures. Fleischwirtschaft 76(5): 521–26.

Flores-Peinado S, Mota-Rojas D, Guerrero-Legarreta I, Mora- Medina P, Cruz-Monterrosa R, Gómez-Prado J and Martínez- Burnes J. 2020. Physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling: Infrared and thermal imaging applications. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine 8(1): 71–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23144599.2020.1821574

Frimpong S, Gebresenbet G, Bobobee E, Aklaku E and Hamdu I. 2014. Effect of transportation and pre-slaughter handling on welfare and meat quality of cattle: Case Study of Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana. Veterinary Sciences 1: 174–91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci1030174

Gajana C S. 2011. ‘Effects of pre-slaughter handling on pork quality from a small holder abattoir.’ Doctoral dissertation, MSc. thesis, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

Gebregeziabhear E and Ameha N. 2015. The effect of stress on productivity of animals: A review. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5(15): 14–22.

Gosalvez L F, Averos X, Valdevira J J and Herranz A. 2006. Influence of season, distance and mixed loads on the physical and carcass integrity of pigs transported to slaughter. Meat Science 73: 553–58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.02.007

Gotardo L R M, Vieira P B, Marchini C F P, Nascimento M R B M, Antunes R C, Guimarães E C, Bueno J P and Santos D B. 2015. Cyclic heat stress in broilers and their effects on quality of chicken breast meat. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 55: 1–5.

Grandin T. 2000a. Animal handling troubleshooting guide. Meat Poultry March 64–69.

Grandin T. 2010. Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants. Meat Science 86(1): 56–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.022

Gregory N G and Grandin T. 1998. Animal welfare and meat science (No. 636.08947 G7). CABI Publishing.

Gregory N G. 2008. Animal welfare at markets and during transport and slaughter. Meat Science 80(1): 2–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.05.019

Grigor P N, Cockram M S, Steele W B, Mcintyre J, Williams C L, Leushuis I E and Van Reenen C G. 2004. A comparison of the welfare and meat quality of veal calves slaughtered on the farm with those subjected to transportation and lairage. Livestock Production Science 91: 219–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.08.005

Guardia M D, Estany J, Balasch S, Oliver M A, Gispert M and Diestre A. 2004. A risk assessment of PSE condition due to pre-slaughter conditions and RYR1 gene in pigs. Meat Science 67: 471–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.11.020

Gupta M and Mondal T. 2019. Heat stress and thermoregulatory responses of goats: A review. Biological Rhythm Research 52(3): 407–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2019.1603692

Hahn G L and Mader T L. 1997. Heat waves and their relation to thermoregulation, feeding behavior and mortality of feedlot cattle. Proceedings of the Fifth International Livestock and Environment Symposium. pp. 563–567. Minneapolis, ASAE, St. Joseph, MO.

Harvey R B, Anderson R C, Young C R, Swindle M M, Genovese K J, Hume M E, Droleskey R E, Farrington L A, Ziprin R L and Nisbet D J. 2001. Effects of feed withdrawal and transport on cecal environment and Campylobacter concentrations in a swine surgical model. Journal of Food Protection 64(5): 730–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.5.730

Hemsworth P H, Rice M, Karlen M G, Calleja L, Barnett J L, Nash J and Coleman G J. 2011. Human–animal interactions at abattoirs: Relationships between handling and animal stress in sheep and cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135(1-2): 24–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2011.09.007

Jarvis A M, Messer C D A and Cockram M S. 1996. Handling, bruising and dehydration of cattle at the time of slaughter. Animal Welfare 5: 259-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0962728600018844

Kadima I T, Mahgouba O, Al-Ajmia D S, Al-Maqbalya R S, Al-Mugheiryb S M and Bartolomeb D Y. 2004. The influence of season on quality characteristics of hot-boned beef m. longissimus thoracis. Meat Science 66: 831–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.08.001

Knowles T G and Warriss P D. 2007. Stress physiology of animals during transport, pp. 312–328. Livestock Handling and Transport. 3rd edn. (Ed.) Grandin T. CABI Publishing, UK. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845932190.0312

Kumar B, Manuja A and Aich P. 2012. Stress and its impact on farm animals. Frontiers in Bioscience E(4): 1759–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2741/e496

Lana B. 2017. What to know about general adaptation syndrome.

Lessler J, Ranells N and Choice G. 2007. Grower guidelines for poultry and fowl processing. North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Lewis C R G, Hulbert L E, Lund V, Coleman G, Gunnarsson S, Appleby M C and Karkinen K. 2006. Animal welfare science - Working at the interface between the natural and social sciences. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 97: 37–49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2005.11.017

Manalo M R and Gabriel A A. 2020. Influence of antemortem and slaughtering practices on the pH of pork and chicken meats. Philippine Journal of Science 149(1): 1–19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56899/149.01.01

Mantis F, Bizelis I, Symeon G K and Rogdakis E .2019. Effects of pre-slaughter short-term factors on pork quality. Animal Production Science 59(12): 2273–79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17665

María G A. 2008. Meat quality, pp. 77-113. Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Farm Animals. (Eds) Appleby M C, Cussen V and Garces L. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845934033.0077

McNally P W and Warriss P D. 1996. A study of recent bruising in cattle at abattoirs. Veterinary Record 138: 126–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.138.6.126

Mir N A, Rafiq A, Kumar F, Singh V and Shukla V. 2017. Determinants of broiler chicken meat quality and factors affecting them: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology 54: 2997-3009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2789-z

Miranda-de la Lama G C, María G A and Villarroel M. 2008. Behavioural effects of social mixing in feed-lot light lambs. Proceedings of the 42nd Congress of the International Society For Applied Ethology. ISAE, Dublín, Ireland.

Miranda-De La Lama G C, Villarroel M, Olleta J L, Alierta S, Sañudo C and Maria G A. 2009. Effect of the pre-slaughter logistic chain on meat quality of lambs. Meat Science 83(4): 604–609. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.07.009

Mitchell D, Snelling E P, Hetem R S, Maloney S K, Strauss W M and Fuller A. 2018. Revisiting concepts of thermal physiology: predicting responses of mammals to climate change. Journal of Animal Ecology 87(4): 956–73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12818

Mohapatra S, Kundu A K, Mishra S R, Senapati S, Jyotiranjan T and Panda G. 2021. HSF1 and GM-CSF expression, its association with cardiac health, and assessment of organ function during heat stress in crossbred Jersey cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 139: 200-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.07.018

Muchenje V, Dzama K, Chimonyo M, Strydom P E and Raats J G. 2009. Relationship between pre-slaughter stress responsiveness and beef quality in three cattle breeds. Meat Science 81: 653–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.004

Murphy E, Nordquist R E and van der Staay F J. 2014. A review of behavioural methods to study emotion and mood in pigs, Sus scrofa. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 159: 9–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.08.002

Myers D A. 2006. Common procedures and concerns with wildlife. Veterinary Clinics: Exotic Animal Practice 9(2): 437–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2006.03.005

Ohl F and van der Staay F J. 2012. Animal welfare: At the interface between science and society. Veterinary Journal 192: 13–19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.05.019

Parida S, Mishra S R, Mishra C, Dalai N, Mohapatra S, Mahapatra A P K and Kundu A K. 2020. Impact of heat stress on expression kinetics of HSP27 in cardiac cells of goats. Biological Rhythm Research 51(6): 925–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2018.1564578

Parida S, Mishra S R, Mishra C, Mohapatra S, Dalai N, Mahapatra A P K and Kundu A K. 2020. Impact of heat stress on transcriptional abundance of HSP70 in cardiac cells of goat. Animal Biotechnology 31(3): 223–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.1583574

Ponnampalam E N, Hopkins D L, Bruce H, Li D, Baldi G and Bekhit A E D. 2017. Causes and contributing factors to “dark cutting” meat: Current trends and future directions: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 16(3): 400–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12258

Pophiwa P, Webb E C and Frylinck L. 2020. A review of factors affecting goat meat quality and mitigating strategies. Small Ruminant Research 183: 106035. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2019.106035

Poznyakovskiy V M, Gorlov I F, Tikhonov S L and Shelepov V G. 2015. About the quality of meat with PSE and DFD properties. Foods and Raw Materials 3(1): 104–110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12737/11244

Rajkowski K T, Eblen S and Laubauch C. 1998. Efficacy of washing and sanitizing trailers used for swine transport in reduction of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Protection 61(1): 31–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.1.31

Sabow A B, Nakyinsige K, Adeyemi K D, Sazili A Q, Johnson C B, Webster J and Farouk M M. 2017. High frequency pre-slaughter electrical stunning in ruminants and poultry for halal meat production: A review. Livestock Science 202: 124–34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2017.05.021

Schiller M, Ben-Shaanan T L and Rolls A. 2021. Neuronal regulation of immunity: why, how and where? Nature Reviews Immunology 21(1): 20–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0387-1

Schimelpfenig T. 2021. NOLS wilderness medicine. Rowman & Littlefield.

Schwartzkopf-Genswein K S, Faucitano L, Dadgar S, Shand P, González L A and Crowe T G. 2012. Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A review. Meat Science 92(3): 227-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.010

Šímová V, Večerek V, Passantino A and Voslářová E. 2016. Pre-transport factors affecting the welfare of cattle during road transport for slaughter–A review. Acta Veterinaria Brno 85(3): 303–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201685030303

Sionek B and Przybylski W. 2016. The impact of ante-and post-mortem factors on the incidence of pork defective meat–A review. Annals of Animal Science 16(2): 333–45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2015-0086

Sommavilla R, Faucitano L, Gonyou H, Seddon Y, Bergeron R, Widowski T and Brown J. 2017. Season, transport duration and trailer compartment effects on blood stress indicators in pigs: Relationship to environmental, behavioral and other physiological factors, and pork quality traits. Animals 7(2): 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7020008

Stajković S, Teodorović V, Baltić M and Karabasil N. 2017. Pre-slaughter stress and pork quality. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 85(1): 012034. IOP Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/85/1/012034

Stull C L. 1997. Stress and dairy calves. University of California, Davis.

Trottier N L, Johnston L, de Lange C and Farmer C. 2014. Applied amino acid and energy feeding of sows, pp. 117–146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-803-2_6

The Gestating and Lactating Sow. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen (the Netherlands).

Uzal F A, Plattner B L and Hostetter J M. 2016. Alimentary system. Jubb, Kennedy & Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals 2:1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-5318-4.00007-3

Vermeulen L, Van de Perre V, Permentier L, De Bie S, Verbeke G and Geers R. 2015. Pre-slaughter handling and pork quality. Meat Science 100: 118–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.09.148

Viljoena H F, de Kocka H L and Webbb E C. 2002. Consumer acceptability of dark, firm and dry (DFD) and normal pH beef steaks. Meat Science 61: 181–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00183-8

Villarroel M, Maria G A, Sanudo C, Oletta J L and Gebresenbet G. 2003. Effect of transport time on sensorial aspects of beef meat quality. Meat Science 63: 353–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00093-1

Vogel K D, Fabrega Rromans E, Llonch Obiols P and Velarde V. 2019. Stress physiology of animals during transport. Chapter 3: 30–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781786399151.0030

Von Borell E H. 2001. The biology of stress and its application to livestock housing and transportation assessment. Journal of Animal Science 79(E): E260–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas2001.79E-SupplE260x

Wang R H, Liang R R, Lin H, Zhu L X, Zhang Y M, Mao Y W, Dong P C, Niu L B, Zhang M H and Luo X. 2017. Effect of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and postmortem carbohydrate metabolism. Poultry Science 96(3): 738–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew329

Warriss P D. 2000. Meat science: An introductory text. CAB-International, Wallingford, England. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851994246.0000

Warriss P D. 2003. Optimal lairage times and conditions for slaughter pigs: A review. Veterinary Record 153(6): 170–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.153.6.170

Warriss P D. 2020. Antemortem factors influencing the yield and quality of meat from farm animals, pp. 1-15. Quality and Grading of Carcasses of Meat Animals. CRC Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003068297-1

Wesley I V, Muraoka W T, Trampel D W and Hurd H S. 2005. Effect of preslaughter events on prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in market-weight turkeys. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(6): 2824–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.6.2824-2831.2005

West J W, Yullinix B O and Sandifer G. 1991. Changing dietary electrolyte balance for dairy cows in cool and hot environments. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 1662–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78329-X

Xing T, Gao F, Tume R K, Zhou G and Xu X. 2019. Stress effects on meat quality: A mechanistic perspective. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 18(2): 380–401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12417

Yau Y H and Potenza M N. 2013. Stress and eating behaviors. Minerva Endocrinologica 38(3): 255.

Zimerman M, Grigioni G, Taddeo H and Domingo E. 2011. Physiological stress responses and meat quality traits of kids subjected to different pre-slaughter stressors. Small Ruminant Research 100(2-3): 137–42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.06.011






Review Article

How to Cite

MOHAPATRA, S., PALAI, S., PRADHAN, S. R., DAS, S., MAHAPATRA, A. P. K., PRIYADARSINI, L., PATRA, R., & DALAI, N. (2023). Effect of stress on carcass and meat quality of sheep, goat and pig. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 93(8), 751–758. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v93i8.126279