Changes in in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of crossbred cattle (Bos taurus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in response to diet at different time intervals

Abstract views: 49 / PDF downloads: 58


  • SONAM DIXIT Government of Uttar Pradesh, India
  • SACHIN KUMAR ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana
  • A K TYAGI Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi


Adaptation period, Crossbred cattle, In vitro rumen fermentation, Menke’s total gas estimation, Murrah buffalo


Assessment of the diet adaptation period is critical for feeding experiments in ruminants to have significant changes in the concerned parameters. An in vitro trial was conducted to investigate the impact of the sampling at different time periods (day 0, 11, 21, and 60) to determine the adaptation period of feed treatment over the ruminal fermentation parameters in crossbred Karan-Fries cattle (Bos taurus) and Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) heifers. Two types of total mixed rations (TMRs), viz. high forage diet (HFD) having roughage and concentrate ratio (R:C) as 70:30 and high concentrate diet (HCD) having R:C as 40:60 were formulated, and fed to cattle and heifers. Rumen liquors were collected from all the animals on 0, 11, 21, and 60 days. HFD and HCD diets were incubated with strained rumen liquor collected from cattle and buffalo adopting Menke’s in vitro gas procedure. The results showed that most of the in vitro rumen fermentation parameters, viz. total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) (mM/ml), acetate (%), propionate (%), butyrate (%), acetate propionate ratio (A:P), partitioning factor (PF) and microbial biomass production (MBP) (mg), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (%) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (%) were significantly different at day 0 and 11 compared to day 21. Afterward, up to day 60, there were no effects reported except increased IVDMD and IVOMD for buffalo compared to day 21. As a result of our findings, it can be concluded that there are significant differences in rumen fermentation parameters at 11 and 21 days and that the time period for cattle and buffalo should not be reduced to 11 days from 21 days in order to achieve proper feed adaptation and stabilize the rumen fermentation process. Further research is needed to investigate the impacts of the adaption period at various time intervals.


Download data is not yet available.


AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.

Blümmel M, Givens D I and Moss A R. 2005. Comparison of methane produced by straw fed sheep in open-circuit respiration with methane predicted by fermentation characteristics measured by an in vitro gas procedure. Animal Feed Science and Technology 123: 379–90. DOI:

Blümmel M, Makkar H P S and Becker K. 1997. In vitro gas production: A technique revisited. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 77(1-5): 24–34. DOI:

Brown M S, Ponce C H and Pulikanti R. 2006. Adaptation of beef cattle to high-concentrate diets: Performance and ruminal metabolism. Journal of Animal Science 84(suppl_13): E25–E33. DOI:

Clemmons B A, Martino C, Schneider L G, Lefler J, Embree M M and Myer P R. 2019. Temporal stability of the ruminal bacterial communities in beef steers. Scientific Reports 9(1): 1–8. DOI:

Dixit S, Kundu S S, Mondal G, Shivani S and Gupta R. 2016. Predicting nutrient utilization on the basis of feed composition using Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system and three stage in vitro digestibility method. Ruminant Science 5(2): 193–200.

Dixit S, Kumar S, Sharma R, Banakar P S, Deb R and Tyagi A K. 2022. Rumen microbial diversity, enteric methane emission and nutrient utilization of crossbred Karan-Fries cattle (Bos taurus) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) consuming varied roughage concentrate ratio. Animal Biotechnology. 1–19. DOI:

Erwin E S, Marco G J and Emery E M. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science 44: 1768–71. DOI:

Estevam D D, Pereira I C, Rigueiro AL N, Perdigão A, Da Costa C F, Rizzieri R A, Pereira M C S, Martins C L, Millen D D and Arrigoni M D B. 2020. Feedlot performance and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle adapted to high-concentrate diets over periods of 6, 9, 14 and 21 days. Animal 14(11): 2298–2307. DOI:

Fernando S C, Purvis HT, Najar F Z, Sukharnikov LO, Krehbiel C R, Nagaraja T G, Roe B A and Desilva U J A E M. 2010. Rumen microbial population dynamics during adaptation to a high- grain diet. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76(22): 7482–90. DOI:

Hook S E, Steele M A, Northwood K S, Dijkstra J, France J, Wright A D G and McBride B W. 2011. Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) adaptation and recovery on the density and diversity of bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 78(2): 275–84. DOI:

Li M, Penner G B, Hernandez-Sanabria E, Oba M and Guan L L. 2009. Effects of sampling location and time, and host animal on assessment of bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in the bovine rumen. Journal of Applied Microbiology 107(6): 1924–34. DOI:

Mamuad L L, Kim S H, Lee S S and Dae C. 2017. Adaptation period during changing diet of dairy cows changes rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial qualities and communities. Journal of Animal Science 95: 372. DOI:

Menke K H, Raab L, Salewski A, Steingass H, Fritz D and Schneider W. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science 93(1): 217–22. DOI:

Menke K H and Steingass H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development 28: 7–55.

Nicholson J W G, Haynes E H, Warner R G and Loosli J K. 1956. Digestibility of various rations by steers as influenced by the length of preliminary feeding period. Journal of Animal Science 15: 1172–79. DOI:

Parra F S, Ronchesel J R, Martins C L, Perdigão A, Pereira M C S, Millen D D and Arrigoni M D B. 2019. Nellore bulls in Brazilian feedlots can be safely adapted to high-concentrate diets using 14-day restriction and step-up protocols. Animal Production Science 59(10): 1858–67. DOI:

Pinto A C and Millen D D. 2018. Nutritional recommendations and management practices adopted by feedlot cattle nutritionists: the 2016 Brazilian survey. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 99(2): 392–407. DOI:

Qiu Q, Gao C, Su H and Cao B. 2021. Rumen fermentation characteristics require more time to stabilize when diet shifts. Animals 11(8): 2192. DOI:

Qiu Q, Gao C, Gao Z, Rahman M A U, He Y, Cao B and Su H. 2019. Temporal dynamics in rumen bacterial community composition of finishing steers during an adaptation period of three months. Microorganisms 7(10): 410. DOI:

RigueiroAL, Squizatti M M, SilvestreAM, PintoAC, Estevam D D, Felizari L D, Dias E F, Demartini B L, Nunes A B, Costa V and Caixeta E L. 2021. The potential of shortening the adaptation of Nellore cattle to high-concentrate diets using only virginiamycin as sole feed additive. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 843. DOI:

Saleem F, Bouatra S, Guo AC, Psychogios N, Mandal R, Dunn S M, Ametaj B N and Wishart D S. 2013. The bovine ruminal fluid metabolome. Metabolomics 9(2): 360–78. DOI:

Sirohi S K, Dagar S S, Singh N, Chaudhary P P, Puniya A K and Singh D. 2013. Differential rumen microbial dynamics and fermentation parameters in cattle fed on high fibre and high concentrate diets. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 30: 60–66.

Snedecor G W and Cochran W B. 1994. Statistical Methods. 8th edition. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Tajima K, Arai S, Ogata K, Nagamine T, Matsui H, Nakamura M, Aminov R I and Benno Y. 2000. Rumen bacterial community transition during adaptation to high-grain diet. Anaerobe 6(5): 273–84. DOI:

Vasconcelos J T and Galyean M L. 2007. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2007 Texas Tech University survey. Journal of Animal Science 85(10): 2772–81. DOI:

Wanapat M, Phesatcha K and Kang S. 2016. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet. Tropical Animal Health and Production 48(6): 1135–40. DOI:

Watanabe D H M, Bertoldi G P, Dos Santos AA, da Silva Filho W I, de Oliveira L F R, Pinto A C J, Ceola Stefano Pereira M, Estevam D D, Squizatti M M, Pinheiro R S B and Millen D D. 2022. Growth performance and rumen morphometrics of Nellore and ½ Angus/Nellore feedlot cattle adapted over 9 and 14 days to high-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 106(1): 12–23. DOI:

Zhang X L, Xu T W, Wang X G, Geng Y Y, Liu H J, Hu L Y, Zhao N, Kang S P, Zhang W M and Xu S X. 2020. The effect of transitioning between feeding methods on the gut microbiota dynamics of yaks on the Qinghai–Tibet plateau. Animals 10(9): 1641. DOI:






How to Cite

DIXIT, S., KUMAR, S., & TYAGI, A. K. (2022). Changes in in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of crossbred cattle (Bos taurus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in response to diet at different time intervals. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 92(11), 1327–1331.