Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of milk borne Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in Jammu region

Abstract views: 213 / PDF downloads: 246


  • RAKHSHAN JEELANI Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 181 102 India
  • ASMA KHAN Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 181 102 India
  • DIPANJALI KONWAR Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 181 102 India
  • BISWAJIT BRAHMA Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 181 102 India


Antibiotic resistance, E. coli, Jammu region, S. aureus, Udder hygiene


Antimicrobial resistance is a public health hazard that affects humans, animals as well as the environment. Antibiotics are becoming gradually ineffective as drug-resistance spreads globally. The dairy industry is a major consumer of antibiotics globally and treatment of infected udder is the most common reason of use of antibiotics in cows. The study highlights the present status of microbial resistance to commonly used antibiotics in dairy animals of Jammu, a region in northern India. The study showed high prevalence of methicillin and tetracycline resistance among E. coli and S. aureus of udder origin. A high percentage (60%) of the isolates showed resistance to two or more than two classes of antibiotics with high prevalence of methicillin and tetracycline resistance. Methicilin resistance was more prevalent in Gram positive Staphylococci, whereas tetracycline resistance was frequent in both Gram positive Staphylococci and Gram negative E. coli. Abundance of tetracycline resistant (Tet A, Tet O and Tet M) and methicillin resistant (MecA, MecI and MecR) genes were fairly common in E. coli and S. aureus of udder origin.


Download data is not yet available.


Bandyopadhyay S, Banerjee J, Bhattacharyya D, Samanta I, Mahanti A, Dutta T K, Ghosh S, Nanda P K, Dandapat P and Bandyopadhyay S. 2018. Genomic identity of fluoroquinolone-resistant bla CTX-M-15-Type ESBL and pMAmpC β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from buffalo milk, India. Microbial Drug Resistance 24: 1345–53. DOI:

Bandyopadhyay S, Samanta I, Bhattacharyya D, Nanda P K, Kar D, Chowdhury J, Dandapat P, Das A K, Batul N, Mondal B and Dutta T K. 2015. Co-infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in bovine mastitis–three cases reported from India. Veterinary Quarterly 35: 56–61. DOI:

Bhattacharyya D, Banerjee J, Bandyopadhyay S, Mondal B, Nanda P K, Samanta I, Mahanti A, Das A K, Das G, Dandapat P and Bandyopadhyay S. 2016. First report on vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bovine and caprine milk. Microbial Drug Resistance 22: 675–81. DOI:

Blair J M, Bavro V N, Ricci V, Modi N, Cacciotto P, Kleinekathofer U, Ruggerone P, Vargiu A V, Baylay A J, Smith H E and Brandon Y. 2015. AcrB drug-binding pocket substitution confers clinically relevant resistance and altered substrate specificity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 3511–16. DOI:

Boamah V E, Agyare C, Odoi H and Dalsgaard A. 2016. Practices and factors influencing the use of antibiotics in selected poultry farms in Ghana. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2: 120. DOI:

Chowdhury S, Hassan M M, Alam M, Sattar S, Bari M S, Saifuddin A K M and Hoque M A. 2015. Antibiotic residues in milk and eggs of commercial and local farms at Chittagong, Bangladesh. Veterinary World 8: 467. DOI:

Clifford K, Desai D, da Costa C P, Meyer H, Klohe K, Winkler A S, Rahman T, Islam T and Zaman M H. 2018. Antimicrobial resistance in livestock and poor quality veterinary medicines. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 96: 662. DOI:

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2020. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 30th ed CLSI supplement M100 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.

Das B, Chaudhuri S, Srivastava R, Nair G B and Ramamurthy T. 2017. Fostering research into antimicrobial resistance in India. British Medical Journal 358: 63. DOI:

Gopal S and Divya K C. 2017. Can methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence from dairy cows in India act as potential risk for community-associated infections? A review. Veterinary World 10: 311. DOI:

Kar D, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharyya D, Samanta I, Mahanti A, Nanda P K, Mondal B, Dandapat P, Das A K, Dutta T K, Bandyopadhyay S and Singh R K. 2015. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and cattle in Odisha, India. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 29: 2–90. DOI:

Koovapra S, Bandyopadhyay S, Das G, Bhattacharyya D, Banerjee J, Mahanti A, Samanta I, Nanda P K, Kumar A, Mukherjee R and Dimri U. 2016. Molecular signature of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from bovine milk in eastern and north-eastern India. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 395–402. DOI:

Kumar R, Yadav B R and Singh R S. 2011. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle. Journal of Biosciences 36: 175– 88. DOI:

Liao X, Cullen P J, Liu D, Muhammad A I, Chen S, Ye X, Wang J and Ding T. 2018. Combating Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistance gene (mecA) with cold plasma. Science of the Total Environment 645: 1287–95. DOI:

McEwen S A and Fedorka-Cray P J. 2002. Antimicrobial use and resistance in animals. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34: 93-106. DOI:

Preethirani P L, Isloor S, Sundareshan S, Nuthanalakshmi V, Deepthikiran K, Sinha A Y, Rathnamma D, Nithin Prabhu K, Sharada R, Mukkur T K and Hegde N R. 2015. Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification, and in-vitro antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from bubaline subclinical mastitis in South India. PLoS One 10: 0142717. DOI:

Sambrook, J and Russell D W. 2006. Purification of nucleic acids by extraction with phenol: chloroform. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 1: 4455. DOI:

Vidovic S, An R and Rendahl A. 2019. Molecular and physiological characterization of fluoroquinolone-highly resistant Salmonella enteritidis strains. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 729. DOI:

Von Wintersdorff C J, Penders J, Van Niekerk J M, Mills N D, Majumder S, Van Alphen L B, Savelkoul P H and Wolffs P F. 2016. Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in microbial ecosystems through horizontal gene transfer. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 173. DOI:

Wiegand I, Hilpert K and Hancock R. 2008. Agar and broth dilution methods to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial substances. Nature Protocols 3: 163–75. DOI:

Willmott C J and Maxwell A. 1993. A single point mutation in the DNA gyrase A protein greatly reduces binding of fluoroquinolones to the gyrase-DNA complex. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 37: 126–27. DOI:

Woolhouse M, Ward M, Van B, Bram F and Jeremy. 2015. Antimicrobial resistance in humans, livestock and the wider environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370: 20140083. DOI:

World Health Organization, World Health Organization Ten threats to global health in 2019.






How to Cite

JEELANI, R., KHAN, A., KONWAR, D., & BRAHMA, B. (2023). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of milk borne Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in Jammu region. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 93(04), 331–336.