Porcine circovirus 2d associated with stillborn mummified foetus of pig

Abstract views: 43 / PDF downloads: 109




Mummified foetuses, PCR, Phylogeny, Pig, Porcine circovirus 2


Recurrent occurrence of stillborn piglets was noticed along with live births during farrowing in pigs in an organized pig farm of Uttar Pradesh. On detailed post mortem examination, externally, the foetus was found to be partially dehydrated and dark brown in colour with shrunken eyes. Internally, visceral organs including lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and intestine were partially dehydrated and dark brown in colour. Upon molecular investigation, the pooled tissue samples were found positive for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection using PCR technique and further confirmed the PCV2d genotype by DNA sequencing. Other most possible infections including porcine parvoviral infection (PPV), PCV3 and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection (PRRS) were found negative using PCR and RT-PCR techniques, respectively. This result is suggestive of role of PCV2d as a possible etiological agent to cause stillbirth and mummification of porcine foetuses.


Download data is not yet available.


Angjelovski B, Cvetkovikj A, Mrenoshki S, Gjurovski I, Dejanoski T and Dovenski T. 2014. Sow productivity on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Veterinary Review 37(2): 135–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2014.06.016

Arnauld C, Legeay O, Laurian Y, Thiery R, Denis M, Blanchard P. and Jestin A. 1998. Development of a PCR-based method coupled with a microplate colorimetric assay for the detection of porcine parvovirus and application to diagnosis in piglet tissues and human plasma. Molecular and Cellular Probes 12(6): 407–16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/mcpr.1998.0205

Bera B C, Choudhary M, Anand T, Virmani N, Sundaram K, Choudhary B and Tripathi B N. 2020. Detection and genetic characterization of porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) in pigs in India. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 67(3):1062– 067. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13463

Bogdan J, West K, Clark E, Konoby C, Haines D, Allan G, McNeilly F, Meehan B, Krakowka S and Ellis J A. 2001. Association of porcine circovirus 2 with reproductive failure in pigs: a retrospective study, 1995–1998. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 42(7): 548.

da Silva N, Carriquiry A, O’Neill K, Opriessnig T and O’Connor A M. 2014. Mixed treatment comparison meta- analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines used in piglets. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117(3-4): 413–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.10.006

Ellis J, Krakowka S, Lairmore M, Haines D, Bratanich A, Clark E, Allan G, Konoby C, Hassard L, Meehan B, Martin K, Harding J, Kennedy S and McNeilly F. 1999. Reproduction of lesions of post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic piglets. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 11: 3–14. https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/agri-directory/reports-and-policy-briefs/20th- livestock-census DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/104063879901100101

Karuppannan A K, Ramesh A, Reddy Y K, Ramesh S, Mahaprabhu R, Jaisree S, Roy P, Sridhar R, Pazhanivel N, Sakthivelan S M and Sreekumar C. 2016. Emergence of porcine circovirus 2 associated reproductive failure in southern India. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 63(3): 314–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12276

Mateusen B, Maes D G, Van Soom A, Lefebvre D and Nauwynck H J. 2007. Effect of a porcine circovirus type 2 infection on embryos during early pregnancy. Theriogenology 68: 896–901. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.07.014

Opriessnig T, Madson D M, Schalk S, Brockmeier S, Shen H G, Beach N M, Meng X J, Baker R B, Zanella E L and Halbur P G. 2011. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccinations is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Theriogenology 76(2): 351–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.02.014

Oropeza-Moe M, Oropeza Delgado A J and Framstad T. 2017. Porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures in a specific pathogen free (SPF) piglet producing herd in Norway: a case report. Porcine Health Management 3:1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-017-0072-3

Palinski R, Piñeyro P, Shang P, Yuan F, Guo R, Fang Y, Byers E and Hause B M. 2017. A novel porcine circovirus distantly related to known circoviruses is associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure. Journal of Virology 91(1): 01879–16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01879-16

Ritzmann M, Wilhelm S, Zimmermann P, Etschmann B, Bogner K H, Selbitz H J, Heinritzi K and Truyen U. 2005. Prevalence and association of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets. DTW. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112(9): 348–51.

Saikumar G and Das T. 2019. Porcine circovirus. Recent Advances in Animal Virology 171–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9073-9_10

Sharma R and Saikumar G. 2008. Porcine circovirus 2 associated reproductive failure in Indian pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 78(11): 1238.

Sharma R and Saikumar G. 2010. Porcine parvovirus-and porcine circovirus 2-associated reproductive failure and neonatal mortality in crossbred Indian pigs. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42: 515–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9454-0

Tian, H, Wu J, Shang Y, Cheng Y and Liu X. 2010. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virology Journal 7(1): 1–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-90

Unterweger C, Brunthaler R, Auer A, Fux R, Weissenbacher- Lang C and Ladinig A. 2021. Reconsideration of the diagnostic criteria required for PCV2 reproductive disease. The Veterinary Journal 272: 105660. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105660









How to Cite

H B, V. ., DAS, T. ., & SAIKUMAR, G. . (2024). Porcine circovirus 2d associated with stillborn mummified foetus of pig. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 94(5), 415–418. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v94i5.144702