Multi-drug resistance in Salmonella serovars of zoonotic importance and detection of anti-microbial resistance genes*
Keywords:Animal faecal samples, Anti-microbial resistance genes, Foods of animal origin, Human stool, Multi-drug resistance, Salmonella serovars
Total 50 Salmonella isolates belonging to 10 different serovars comprising Salmonella Typhimurium (21), S. Weltevreden (12), S. Ughelli (5), S. Essen (3), S. Elisabethville (2), S. Lagos (2), S. Drogana (2), S. Enteritidis (1), S. London (1) and un-typable Salmonella-isolate (1) were isolated from 1,132 different samples. Extreme variation of anti-microbial resistance in Salmonella isolates was observed in a range from 0â€“100%. Maximum resistance was observed against sulphamethizole and furazolidone (100% each) followed by kanamycin (50%), gentamicin (44%), nalidixic acid (14%), tobramycin (10%), amikacin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline (8% each), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (6%), norfloxacin (4%), ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime (2% each) and chloramphenicol (0%). High level of sensitivity in Salmonella isolates was observed against chloramphenicol (100%) and tetracycline (92%). The anti-microbial resistance genes detected were blaTEM, tetA, aphAI-LAB, aadB and strA in Salmonella serovars that showed resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively. The blaTEM gene was present in all ampicillin resistant Salmonella isolates (100%) and strA gene in all streptomycin resistant Salmonella isolates (100%) followed by tetA gene in 75% tetracycline resistant Salmonella isolates, aadB gene in 14.28% gentamicin resistant Salmonella isolates and aphAI-LAB gene in 8% kanamycin resistant Salmonella isolates. All Salmonella isolates (100%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR), indicating injudicious and extensive use of anti-microbial agents in these areas that may pose great risks to animal health and production. Moreover, MDR Salmonella serovars may pose great public health problems through consumption of foods of animal origin. Multi-drug resistance genes exhibited by all Salmonella serovars also indicated serious threats to the animal health and production including great risks to the public health.
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