Calcium dependent or independent pathway for antibody response against sheep red blood cells in various indigenous and imported breeds of chicken


  • A KUNDU Head of Department, Animal Science Division, CIARI, Port Blair
  • D P SINGH Principal Scientist, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India
  • S C MOHAPATRA Ex-Director, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India



Antibody, Calcium dependent or classical pathway (CPW), Calcium independent pathway or alternate pathway (APW), Complement, Indigenous chicken


Birds (433), 7-week-old, of both sexes belonging to Indian native breeds including Aseel, Kadakanath, Naked Neck and Frizzle fowl along with the exotic breeds like Dahlem red, White Leghorn, Synthetic Dam Line (SDL) and Naked Neck broiler were utilized to test the complement response (expressed as CH50 unit/ml) to sheep erythrocytes determined by means of both calcium dependent pathway or classical pathway (CPW) and calcium independent pathway or alternate pathway (APW). The effect of genotype (breed), sex and their interactions on antibody response was also studied. The results revealed the presence of natural CPW and APW antibodies on day of immunization in all groups under study irrespective of sex. The natural APW response was highest in Aseel and lowest in broilers. The highest CPW responses were observed in Dahlem red and Aseel followed by Kadakanath, Naked Neck, White Leghorn, Frizzle, SDL broiler and NN broiler on day 5 p.i. Aseel had the highest level followed by Kadakanath, but Dahlem Red showed much regressed value on day 12 p.i. and also on day 19 p.i. In all the genetic lines peak response was observed on 5th day p.i. and declined thereafter. Aseel, which showed highest response on day 5 p.i. for APW response also had the highest value on day 12 p.i. and 19 p.i. and lowest response was observed in broilers. Males excelled the females for APW response at all days of measurements post immunization in all genetic groups except Dahlem Red and NN broiler on 12<supth/sup>, day p.i. Statistical analysis revealed significant variation in CPW and APW response among the various genetic groups and this remained consistent in all days of post immunization i.e. on day 0,5,12,19 p.i. Sex effects were not significant in any days of p.i. for C.P.W response. Sex effects were significant on days 12 and 19 p.i. only. However, interaction between breed and sex were significant on days 5, 12, and 19 p.i. for CPW and for APW, on days 0 and 19 p.i. It is concluded that the chicken populations utilized in this study differed widely with respect to their immunocompetence traits, on different days of post SRBC injection and observed higher antibody than young birds.


Download data is not yet available.


Barta O and Barta V. 1975. Chickens (Gallus gallus) hemolytic complement: Optimal conditions for its titration. Immunological Communication 4: 337–51.

Chanh T C Benedict A and Abplanalp A. 1976. Association of serum hemolytic complement levels with the MHC in chickens. Journal of Experimental Medicine 144: 555–61.

Demey F, Baelmans R, Pandey V S and Verhulst A. 1996. Immunocompetence measurement of major genes Dahlem Red chickens to be used to upgrade local chickens, Proceeding of World’s Poultry Congress, New Delhi, India 2–5 Sep. 1996, Vol. 1V, pp. 93.

Demey F, Pandey V S, Baelmans R, Agbede G and Verhulst A. 1993. The effect of storage at low temperature on the haemolytic complement activity of chicken serum. Veterinary Research Communications 17: 37–40.

Dorney P, Baelmans R, Parmentier H K, Nieuwland M G B, Demey F and Berkvens D. 2005. Serum haemolytic complement levels in German Dahlem red chickens are affected by three major genes (Naked Neck, Dwarf, Frizzled) of tropical interest. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37: 1–9.

Duncan D B.1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11: 1–42.

Kinoshita T. 1991. Biology if complement: The overture. Immunology Today 12: 291–95.

Kumar R and Kumar S. 2011. Immunocompetence profile of Aseel breed of native chicken. Indian Veterinary Journal 88: 23– 25.

Kundu A, Singh D P, Mohapatra S C, Dash B B, Moudgal R P and Bisht G S. 1999. Immunocompetence status of Indian native visa- vis imported breeds of chickens–2– Mercatoethanol resistance (IgG) and sensitive (IgM) antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. Indian Journal of poultry Science 34: 295–302.

Kundu A, Dash B B, Mohapatra S C, Singh D P and Singh H. 1996. In – vivo immunovommpetence measures in indigenous breeds of chickens. Proceedings of World’s Poultry Congress, 2–5 Sept. 1996, New Delhi, vol. 1V, PP 92.

Kundu A, Singh D P, Mohapatra S C, Dash B B, Moudgal R.P and Bisht G S. 1999. Antibody response to sheep erythrocytes in Indian native vis-a- vis imported breeds of chickens. British Poultry Science 40: 40–43.

Parmentier H K, Baelmans R, Nieuwland M G B, Dorny P and Demey F. 2002. Haemolytic complement activity, C3 and Factor B consumption in serum from chickens divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 90: 91–100.

Parmentier H K, Baelmans R, Savekoul H F J, Dorny P, Demey F and Berkvens D. 2004. Serum haemolytic complement activities in 11 different MHC (B) typed chicken lines. Veterinary immunology and Immunopathology 100: 25–32.

Saxena V K. 1993. ‘Genetic studies on immunocompetence in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis).’ Ph. D. Thesis, IVRI, Izatnagar, India.

Shen P F, Smith E J and Bacon L D. 1984. The ontogeny of blood cells, complement and imunoglobullinsin 3 to 12 week old 151 5 B congenic white Leghorn chickens. Poultry Science 63: 1083–93.

Singh P, Kumar S, Singh H N and Singh D P. 2010. Genetics of immunocompetence traits in Aseel native chicken. Journal of Applied Animal Research 37: 229–33.

Skeeles J K, Lukert P D and De Buysschar E V. 1979a. Hemolytic complement in SPF chicken. Influence of age and sex. Avian Disease 23: 225–28.

Skeeles J K, Stewart R G, Brown J, Page R K and Russell J.D. 1980. Hemolytic complement activity in broiler chicken and turkey. Poultry Science 59: 1221–25.

Snedecor G W and Cochran W G. 1994. Statistical Methods. 9th edn. Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd Iowa State University Press, Iowa.







How to Cite

KUNDU, A., SINGH, D. P., & MOHAPATRA, S. C. (2015). Calcium dependent or independent pathway for antibody response against sheep red blood cells in various indigenous and imported breeds of chicken. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 85(2), 129–134.