Biochemical parameters in sheep fed diet in presence of mixed Salix babylonica extract and exogenous enzyme as feed additives
Keywords:Biochemical parameters, Extract, Exogenous enzyme, Lambs
The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction impacts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) extract with exogenous enzyme (EZ) as feed additives on some serum biochemistry parameters in lambs. Suffolk lambs (20), 24±0.3 kg live weight and 6–8 months old were used during 60 days. The lambs were distributed in individual cages of 1.5×1.5 m cages into 4 treatments of 5 lambs each of completely randomized design. All animals were fed a basal diet (BD) of 70% maize silage and 30% commercial concentrate. Treatments were: (i) control; PD without any additives; (ii) EZ; PD plus 10 g of EZ; (iii) SB; BD plus 30 mL of S. babylonica (SB) extract; and (iv) EZSB; BD plus 10 g EZ and 30 mL of SB extract. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 and analyzed for total proteins, glucose, creatinine, blood urea N (BUN), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Interactions between treatment×time were occurred in creatinine, BUN and magnesium. The highest values of total proteins were obtained with control and SB animals versus EZ or EZSB. The SB treatment tend to increase the levels of creatinine versus other treatments. The ALP level was highest in SB animals. In conclusion, supplementation with S. babylonica extract, exogenous enzymes and/or their combination did not cause any major health disorders in lambs within 60 days of experiment.
Acamovic T and Brooker J D. 2005. Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their effects in animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64: 403–12.
Ahmed V U, Perveen S and Bano S. 1990. Saponin from the leaves of Guaiacum officinale. Phytochemistry 29: 3287–90.
Allam S M, El-Shaer H M, Yuossef K M, Ali M A and Bakr S Y A. 2009. Impact of feeding biologically treated wheat straw on the production performance of goats in North Sinai. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5: 535–43.
AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, V A, USA.
Arriola K G, Kim S C, Staples C R and Adesogan A T. 2011. Effect of fibrolytic enzyme application to low- and highconcentrate diets on the performance of lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 94: 832–41.
Bedford M R and Cowieson A J. 2012. Exogenous enzymes and their effects on intestinal microbiology. Animal Feed Science and Technology 173: 76–85.
Braun J P, Trumel C and Bezille P. 2010. Clinical biochemistry in sheep: A selected review. Small Ruminant Research 92: 10–18.
Cowan M M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12: 564–82.
Durmic Z and Blache D. 2012. Bioactive plants and plant products: Effects on animal function, health and welfare. Animal Feed Science and Technology 176: 150–62.
Ford R B and Mazzaferro E M. 2007. Urgencias en veterinaria: Procedimientos y terapéutica, Madrid Elsevier.
Gado H M, Salem A Z M, Odongo N E and Borhami B E. 2011. Influence of exogenous enzymes ensiled with orange pulp on digestion and growth performance in lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 165: 131–36.
Imik H, Tuncer S D, Aylanc A and Aytac M. 2008. Determination of some digestibility of nutrients, rumen and blood metabolites of Akkaraman rams fed low-tannin sorghum and other conventional feeds. Veterinary Journal of Ankara University 55: 177–82.
Kumar N U, Singh B and Verma D N. 1980.Effect of different levels of dietary protein and energy on growth of male buffalo calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 51: 513.
Lieber C S. 1990. Mechanism of ethanol induced hepatic injury. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 46: 1–41.
Littell R C, Henry P R and Ammerman C B. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. Journal of Animal Science 76: 1216–31.
Lu C D. 2011. Nutritionally related strategies for organic goat production. Small Ruminant Research 98: 73–82.
Mahgoub O, KadimI T, Tageldin M H, Al-Marzooqi W S, Khalaf S Q and Amnbu Ali A. 2008a. Clinical Profile of sheep fed non- conventional feeds containing phenols and condensed tannins. Small Ruminant Research 78: 115–22.
Mahgoub O, KadimI T, Tageldin M H, AL - Marzooqi W S, Khalaf S Q, Amnbu ALI A and AL-AMRI I. 2008b. Pathological features in sheep fed rations containing phenols and condensed tannins. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7: 1105– 09.
Makkar H P S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research 49: 241–56.
National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Academies Press.
Olafadehan O A. 2011. Changes in haematological and biochemical diagnostic parameters of Red Sokoto goats fed tannin-rich Pterocarpus erinaceus forage diets. Veterinarski Arhiv 81: 471–83.
Ramirez-Restrepo C A, Barry T N, Marriner A, Lopez-Villalobos N, Mcwilliam E L, Lassey K R and Clark H. 2010a. Effects of grazing willow fodder blocks upon methane production and blood composition in young sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 155: 33–43.
Ramirez-Restrepo C A, Pernthaner A, Barry T N, Lopez- Villalobos N, Shaw R J, Pomroy W E and Hein W R. 2010b. Characterization of immune responses against gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs grazing willow fodder blocks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 155: 99–110.
Rowlands G J. 1980. A review of variations in the concentrations of metabolites in the blood of beef and dairy cattle associated with physiology, nutrition and disease, with particular reference to the interpretation of metabolic profiles. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 35: 172–235.
Salem A Z M, El-Adawy M, Gado H, Camacho L M, Ronquillo M, Alsersy H and Borhami B. 2011a. Effects of exogenous enzymes on nutrients digestibility and growth performance in sheep and goats. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 14: 867–74.
Salem A Z M, Olivares M, Lopez S, Gonzalez-Ronquillo M, Rojo R, Camacho L M, Cerrillo S M A and Mejia H P. 2011b. Effect of natural extracts of Salix babylonica and Leucaena leucocephala on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 170: 27–34.
SAS, (2002) SAS User´s Guide: Statistics. Ver 9.0. In Institute, S. (Ed.). Cary, N.C. USA.
Silanikove N, Gilboa N, Perevolotsky A and Nitsan Z. 1996. Goats fed tannin-containing leaves do not exhibit toxic syndromes. Small Ruminant Research 21: 195–201.
Smith B P. 2007. Large Animal Internal Medicine. Elsevier Science Health Science Division.
Turner K E, Wildeus S and Collins J R. 2005. Intake, performance, and blood parameters in young goats offered high forage diets of lespedeza or alfalfa hay. Small Ruminant Research 59: 15– 23.
Valizadeh R, Norouzian M A, Salemi M, Ghiasi E and Yari M. 2010. Effects of Feeding Pistachio By-Products on Hematology and Performance of Balouchi Lambs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9: 1115–19.
Van Soest P J, Robertson J B and Lewis B A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583–97.
Vasta V and Luciano G. 2011. The effects of dietary consumption of plants secondary compounds on small ruminant’s products quality. Small Ruminant Research 101: 150–159.
Copyright (c) 2015 The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright of the articles published in The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences is vested with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, which reserves the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad, for reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information. The Council has no objection to using the material, provided the information is not being utilized for commercial purposes and wherever the information is being used, proper credit is given to ICAR.