Malignant catarrhal fever: recent update


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Authors

  • I HUSSAIN SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India
  • Z A KASHOO SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India
  • A H WANI SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India
  • D HASIN SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India
  • Z A PAMPORI SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India
  • S A WANI SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190 006 India

https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v87i3.68792

Keywords:

Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Malignant catarrhal fever, Prevention and control, Treatment, Vaccine.

Abstract

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a serious, usually fatal disease affecting many species of ungulates of the subfamily Bovinae and family Cervidae including pigs and caused by a herpesvirus under the genus Macavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Ten Macaviruses have been identified to date and 6 were found to be associated with clinical MCF. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), which causes inapparent infection in wildebeest and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), which is associated with subclinical infections in sheep are the two most important herpes viruses that cause clinical wildebeest associated MCF (WA-MCF) and sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF), respectively. The disease is characterized by accumulation of lymphocytes (predominantly CD8+ T cells) in a variety of organs, often associated with tissue necrosis. AIHV-1 can be recovered from animals, while OvHV-2 has never been recovered from affected animals, only OvHV-2 specific DNA is detected in cultured lymphoblastoid cells from infected animals. Diagnosis is normally achieved by observing the clinical signs, characteristic histopathological changes, ELISA and detection of viral DNA in the infected animals. Detection of viral DNA by PCR is becoming the method of choice for diagnosing the SA-MCF. Currently, there is no effective disease control measure. Attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine has been developed with varying degree of success for control of WAMCF in Africa. Separation of reservoir host from susceptible host or raising of OvHV-2 free sheep is the only solution for control of SA-MCF. In India, our group first confirmed SA-MCF in Kashmir. The present article updates current epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control of MCF with special reference to India.

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Submitted

2017-03-17

Published

2017-03-21

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Review Article

How to Cite

HUSSAIN, I., KASHOO, Z. A., WANI, A. H., HASIN, D., PAMPORI, Z. A., & WANI, S. A. (2017). Malignant catarrhal fever: recent update. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 87(3), 260–269. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v87i3.68792
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