Evaluation of midazolam as intravenous induction agent for anaesthesia in dogs

Abstract views: 165 / PDF downloads: 90


  • MALIK ABU RAFEE ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India
  • PRAKASH KINJAVDEKAR ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India
  • AMARPAL ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India
  • H P AITHAL ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India



Anaesthesia, Dog, Induction agent, Midazolam, Ovariohysterectomy


A randomized, blinded, clinical study was conducted on 24 healthy mixed breed female dogs to evaluate midazolam as an induction agent for anaesthesia and its effect on vital parameters during elective ovariohysterectomy. Animals were administered atropine and divided randomly into groups D, DB and DP and premedicated with dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol, and dexmedetomidine and pentazocine, respectively. After 10 min of premedication, anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.8 mg/kg IV), in all the groups and maintained with 1% ketamine as and when needed. Time loss of pedal reflex was considered as the time of induction and it was recorded as 5.00±3.12, 4.75±2.92 and 4.75A±2.66 min in groups D, DB and DP, respectively. Laryngeal reflex was abolished completely, permitting intubation in all the groups. Recovery was smooth and uneventful and recovery time and duration of anaesthesia were comparable in all the groups. Heart rate showed an initial increase followed by a decrease, while respiratory rate decreased below the baseline in all the groups. SBP, DBP and MAP increased initially in all the groups and then decreased until 120 min interval. However, mean arterial pressure remained above the baseline throughout the observation period in all the groups. SpO2 decreased gradually from the baseline throughout the observation period. The results showed that midazolam at the rate of 0.8 mg/kg IV can be used safely as an induction agent in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine alone or with butorphanol or pentazocine while preserving the vital parameters.


Download data is not yet available.


Alibhai H I K, Clarke K W and Lee Y H.1996. Cardiopulmonary effects of combinations of medetomidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate in dogs. Veterinary Record 138: 11–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.138.1.11

Alison M H, Brock-Utne J G, Sommerville T E and Pavy T J G. 1982. Midazolam, a new intravenous induction agent for anaesthesia. South African Medical Journal 61: 274.

Bidlack J M, Mclaughlin J P andWentland M P. 2000. Partial opioids medications for the treatment of pain and drug abuse. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 909: 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06672.x

Bloor B C, Frankland M, Alper G, Raybould D, Weitz J and Shurtliff M. 1992. Hemodynamic and sedative effects of Dexmedetomidine in dog. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 263: 690–97.

Bol C J J G, Vogelaar P W, Tang J P and Mandema J W. 2000. Quantification of pharmacodynamic interactions between dexmedetomidine and midazolam in the rat. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 294: 347–55.

Brock K A. 2001. Preanaesthetic use of atropine in small animals. Australian Veterinary Journal 79: 24–25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2001.tb10632.x

Butola V and Singh B. 2007. Midazolam as tranquilizer in dogs. Indian Veterinary Journal 84: 1141–45.

Chiu T H, Chen M J, Yang Y R, Yang J J and Tang F I. 1995. Action of dexmedetomidine on rat coerulus neurons, intracellular recording in-vitro. European Journal of Pharmacology 285: 261–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(95)00417-J

Crawford M E, Carl P, Bach V, Ravlo O, Mikkelsen B and Werner M. 1989. A randomized comparison between midazolam and thiopental for elective caesarean section anesthesia. Indian Mothers Anesthesia and Analgesia 68: 229–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-198903000-00008

Dere K, Sucullu I, Budak E T, Yeyen S, Filiz A I, Ozkan S and Dagli G. 2010. A comparison of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for sedation, pain and hemodynamic control, during colonoscopy under conscious sedation. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 27: 648–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283347bfe

Dundee J W. 1979. New intravenous anaesthetics. British Journal of Anaesthesiology 51: 641–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/51.7.641

Fragen R J, Gahl F and Caldwell N. 1978. A water-soluble benzodiazepine, RO 21–3981, for induction of anesthesia. Anesthesiology 49: 41–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-197807000-00012

Gertler R, Brown H C, Mitchell D H and Silvius E N. 2001.Dexmedetomidine, a novel sedative analgesic agent. BUMC Proceedings 14: 13–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2001.11927725

Innes I R and Nickerson M. 1975. Atropine, scopolamine and related antimuscarinic drugs. (Eds) Goodman L S, Gilman A. Pharmacologcal basis of therapeutics, 5th ed, New York, Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., pp 514–532.

Jeff C H K, Steven M F and Ronald E M. 2000. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine, medetomidine- butorphanol and medetomidine-ketamine in dogs. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 216: 1578–83.

Kinjavdekar P, Singh G R, Amarpal, Aithal H P and Pawde A M. 2000. Physiologic and biochemical effects of subarachnoidally administered xylazine and medetomidine in goats. Small Ruminant Research 38: 217–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(00)00161-9

Ko J C H, Bailey J E and Pablo L S. 1996. Comparison of sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine and a medetomidinebutorphanol combination in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57: 535–40.

Ko J C H, Fox S M and Mandsager R E. 2000. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomodine, medetomidine- butorphanol, and medetomidine-ketamine in dogs. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 216: 1578–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.216.1578

Kohno T, Wakai A, Ataka T, Ikoma M, Yamakura T and Baba H. 2006. Actions of midazolam on excitatory transmission in dorsal horn of neurons of adult rat spinal cord. Anesthesiology 104: 338–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200602000-00020

Kuusela E. 2004. Dexmedetomidine and levomedetomidine, the isomers of medetomidine, in dogs. Academic Dissertation, Helsinki, Finland.

Kuusela E, Raekallio M, Anttila M, Falck I, Mölsä S and Vainio O. 2000. Clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of medetomidine and its enantiomers in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23: 15– 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.2000.00245.x

Leppanen M K, Mckusick B C, Granholm M M, Westerholm F C, Tulama R and Short CE. 2006. Clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, butorphanol or diazepam for canine hip radiography. Journal of Small Animal Practice 47: 663–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00030.x

Lumb W V and Jones E W. 1984. Veterinary Anesthesia, 2nd ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.

Macmillan L B, Hein L, Smith M S, Piascik M T and Limbird L E. 1996. Central hypotensive effects of alpha–2 adrenergic receptor subtype. Science 273: 801–03. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.273.5276.801

Matthews N S. 2007. Inhalant anaesthetics. (Eds) Seymour C, Duke-Novakovski T. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2nd edition. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, pp 150–155.

Muir W W and Robertson J T.1985. Visceral analgesia, effects of xylazine, butorphanol, meperidine and pentazocine in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46: 2081–84.

Muir W W. 2007. Considerations for General Anesthesia. (Eds) Tranquilli W J, Thurmon J C, Grimm K A. Lumb & Jone’s Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, 4th ed, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 2007. Pp 15–16.

Muir W W, Ford J L and Karpa G E. 1999. Effects of intramuscular administration of low doses of medetomidine and medetomidinebutorphanol in middle-aged and old dogs. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 215: 1116–20.

Muir W W, Hubbell J A E, Bednarski R M and Skarda R T. 2007. Handbook of veterinary anesthesia. 4th ed, Mosby Elsevier, USA, pp 23–50.

Ossipov M H, Harris S, Llyod P, Messineo E, Lin B S and Bagley J. 1990. Antinociceptive interaction between opioids and medetomidine; systemic additivity and spinal synergy. Anaesthesiology 73: 1227–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199012000-00022

Oyamada Y, Ballantyne D, Muckenhoff K and Scheid P. 1998. Respiration modulated membrane potential and chemosensitivity of locus coeruleus in the in vitro brain stem- spinal cord of the neonatal rat. Journal of Physiology 513: 381–98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.381bb.x

Reves J G, Fragen R J, Vinik R and Greenblatt D J. 1985. Midazolam, pharmacology and uses. Anesthesiology 62: 310– 24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-198503000-00017

Reves J G, Corssen G and Holcomb C. 1978.Comparison of two benzodiazepines for anaesthesia induction, Midazolam and Diazepam. Canadian Anaesthesiology Society Journal 25: 211–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03004881

Ritcher J J. 1981. Current theories about the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines and neuroleptic drugs. Anesthesiology 54: 66–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-198101000-00013

Sabbe M B, Penning J P, Ozaki G T and Yaksh T L. 1994. Spinal and systemic action of the alpha-2 receptor agonist dexmedetomidine in dogs. Anesthesiology 80: 1057–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199405000-00015

Sinclair M D. 2003. A review of the physiological effects of alpha-2 agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice. Canadian Veterinary Journal 44: 885–97.

Sullivan A F, Kalso E A, Mcquay H J and Dickenson A H. 1992. The antinociceptive actions of dexmedetomidine on dorsal horn neuronal responses in the anaesthetized rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 215: 127–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(92)90617-D

Wright M. 1982. Pharmacological effects of ketamine and its uses in veterinary medicine. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 182: 1462–71.

Zielmann S, Kazmaier S, Schull S and Weyland A. 1997. S-+- ketamine and circulation. Anesthesist 46: 43–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00002464









How to Cite

RAFEE, M. A., KINJAVDEKAR, P., AMARPAL, & AITHAL, H. P. (2017). Evaluation of midazolam as intravenous induction agent for anaesthesia in dogs. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 87(3), 280–286. https://doi.org/10.56093/ijans.v87i3.68843