On Farm Testing of Rice Residue Management Techniques for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Establishment in Punjab
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Keywords:Residue incorporation, Residue removal, Residue retention, Wheat establishment, Economic indices
Rice residue management (RRM) has been the key component of systemsâ€™ sustainability.Â The paper reports the effect of different RRM and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) establishment methods on productivity and yield contributing attributes through farmerÂ participatory mode in south-western Punjab. Different RRM technologies including rice residue removal, residue incorporation and residue retention on soil as surface mulch were evaluated. Wheat grain yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher with happy seeder methodÂ of wheat establishment following chopping of loose rice stubble, which acts as surface mulch, compared with the other RRM technologies. Wheat grain yield in other RRMÂ technologies viz. rice residue incorporation and removal did not differ significantly. The yield contributing attributes viz. plant height, number of effective tillers m-1 row length,Â 1000-grain weight, ear length and the number of grains ear-1 were significantly higher inÂ happy seeder method of wheat establishment. The weed count (Phalaris minor) was significantly lower than the other compared methods of RRM. The correlation matrixÂ exhibited a linear positive relationship between the grain yield and plant height (r=0.951*; p<0.05), ear length (r=0.941*), 1000-grain weight (r=0.853*) and number of grains ear-1Â (r=0.771*). All economic indices viz. average net (Rs. 74, 840/- ha-1), gross returns (Rs. 1,00,620/- ha-1) and benefit-cost (B:C; 3.9) ratio were significantly enhanced because ofÂ low cost of cultivation (Rs. 25,780/- ha-1) under happy seeder method of wheat establishment.
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The manuscripts once accepted and published in the Indian Journal of Extension Education will automatically become the property of the Indian Society of Extension Education, New Delhi. The Chief Editor on behalf of the Indian Journal of Extension Education holds the copyright.