Effectiveness of Adaptation Mechanisms of Farmers and its Determinants in Flood Prone Area of Bihar

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Flood, Farm livelihoods, Adaptation, Technological innovation, Institutional innovation


The state of Bihar is most vulnerable to floods in India and farmers in flood-prone areas have undergone adaptation through a combination of technological and institutional innovations. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of adaptation mechanisms as perceived by the farmers to mitigate the negative effects of flooding on their livelihoods covering a random sample of 80 farmers in flood-prone areas of Bhagalpur district in Bihar in 2022. The findings suggest that farmers have developed a range of adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of flooding, the most effective being the changes in cropping patterns, adoption of flood-resistant paddy varieties, pest and disease resistance vegetable varieties, vaccination of livestock, and management of fish ponds. Institutional innovations like self-help groups, farmers' interest groups, farmers clubs, seed banks, and village-level weather advisories were also found crucial to enabling farmers to adapt to floods. Income, cultivated land, information availability, and use of communication sources have explained more than 50% variation in the perceived effectiveness of adaptation by farmers. Future extension efforts need to strengthen the institutional infrastructure to promote flood-resilient technologies to reduce the vulnerability of farm livelihoods.  

Author Biography

  • Souvik Ghosh
    Dr. Souvik Ghosh is presently Professor (Agricultural Extension) and former Head, Department of Agricultural Extension, Visva-Bharati. He was positioned as Visiting Scientist at Department of Economics, South Dakota State University, USA during 2016. Earlier he worked as Scientist and Senior Scientist at ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar during 2000-09 and 2009-13, respectively. He graduated as Gold Medalist in B.Sc. (Agril.) Hons. from Visva-Bharati University in the year 1995 and passed M.Sc. (Dairying) in Dairy Extension Education with Director’s Gold Medal at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in 1997. After completion of Ph.D. (Agricultural Extension) from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi with distinction of Significant Post-Graduate Research in 2000, Dr. Ghosh joined Agricultural Research Service of ICAR on 10th July 2000. Dr. Ghosh has completed eight projects as PI and 22 projects as Co-PI. His outstanding work done in the field of agricultural extension research has brought many laurels including Lal Bahadur Shastri Outstanding Scientist Award 2011 of ICAR, ICAR Outstanding Team Research Award 2006, Dr. K.N. Singh Memorial Award 2017 of Indian Society of Extension Education (ISEE), Dr. Y.P. Singh Memorial Award 2018 of ISEE, Best Scientist Award of ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management 2008, Institution Award 2006 of Institution of Engineers (India)- Orissa State Centre, ISEE Young Scientist Award 2005, etc. He is Fellow of ISEE, IARI, New Delhi and Society for Community Mobilization for Sustainable Development, New Delhi. A total of 304 publications of Dr. Ghosh include 137 papers in national and international journals and six books. For his book on “वैशà¥à¤µà¥€à¤•à¤°à¤£ और भारतीय खादà¥à¤¯ सà¥à¤°à¤•à¥à¤·à¤¾â€œ- Globalisation and Indian Food Security (ISBN-978-81-910947-0-1), Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Puraskar (First Prize) of Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India conferred by His Excellency President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 14th September 2012. Notable contributions of Dr. Ghosh include development of methodologies for integrated assessment of recommended agricultural water management technologies from multi-layer multi stakeholders’ perspectives, formulation of impact assessment framework for participatory irrigation management (PIM) reforms, evaluation of an irrigation system from the farmers’ perspectives following fuzzy logic, construction of water user group dynamics index, assessment of irrigation-agriculture-livelihood-poverty links in eastern Indian states, studies on various issues of agricultural extension management, communication, climate change impact and adaptation, diversified farming and rural livelihood. He coordinated many National level trainers’ trainings sponsored by Ministry of Water Resources and Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for states’ line departments, irrigation departments, NGOs officials of different states as well as nine farmers’ trainings each of seven days duration on scaling-up of water productivity at different locations in which more than thousand farmers were trained. He delivered more than hundred invited lectures in farmers’ and trainers’ training programmes. His presence as invited/guest speakers in different forums and events organized by ICAR institutes, State Agricultural Universities, Central and State Government organizations as well as International organizations shows his recognition as an expert in the discipline of agricultural extension and participatory on-farm water management. He has also been involved in many other assignments like external expert in selection committees, editors in editorial committees of professional society’s journals, reviewer in the national and international journals, etc. He has made significant contributions for advancing the cause of agricultural extension research.


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How to Cite

Effectiveness of Adaptation Mechanisms of Farmers and its Determinants in Flood Prone Area of Bihar. (2023). Indian Journal of Extension Education, 59(3), 32-37. https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/IJEE/article/view/135471

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