Biofloc-copefloc: A Novel Technology towards Sustained Aquaculture


Abstract views: 439 / PDF downloads: 325

Authors

  • P SANTHANAM Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine Sciences Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • N MANICKAM Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine Sciences Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
  • P PERUMAL Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine Sciences Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India

Keywords:

Amphipod, Biofloc, Copefloc, Copepod, Microalgae, Probiotics

Abstract

Aquaculture being the precious source of fish protein is increasingly practiced worldwide. It offers plenty of opportunities to eradicate poverty, food shortage and malnutrition besides increasing the economic growth and ensures better use of natural resources. It is necessary to increase aquaculture production to meet the increasing demand per capita in parallel to the rise of the global population. Therefore, the aquaculture would provide the most reliable supply of seafood in future. Among the various aquaculture systems, shrimp farming is a rapidly increasing industry that has been supporting the growth and supply of the crustacean-protein to consumers around the world. However, there have been many controversial issues in aquaculture regarding food quality, food nutrition, food safety, and sustainability, that are directly related to the nutrition and feeds for farmed shrimp. There are some issues in the area of shrimp nutrition that require consideration, viz., feed and nutrient efficiency, overfeeding and waste, fish meal and fish oil replacement, shrimp and fish health, biotechnology, and human health concerns. The development of aquaculture hatchery and aqua-industry through innovative farming technology is the need of the hour. The new concept via novel technology has been introduced in the shrimp farming sector too where the farmers are building copefloc instead of biofloc to stimulate the production of crustacean copepods in the system. The copefloc would not only act as excellent natural food but also act as an immunostimulant to keep the diseases at bay. The perspective, manner of copefloc technique (CFT) is considered as a promising novel technology for the aquaculture system. Copefloc is used as new live-food in larviculture of shrimp culture industry in Thailand for the first time in the world. This new Biofloc technology-based floc particles are being used as main live food for culturing shrimps, and not for use the food industries. BFT and CFT of recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) is the most advanced technology to the shrimp farming industry that provides natural live feed "Copepod" for post larvae (PL), prior to stocking in ponds. That would enhance the water stability, maintain good survival rate (SR), promote fastest growth rate (GR) and high profitability while making it totally sustainable without any negative impact to our environment. This paper reviews the advantages of using a combined BFT and CFT, a novel technology system in sustainable shrimp farming.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agh, N. and Sorgeloos, P. (2005). Handbook of Protocols and Guidelines for Culture and Enrichment of Live Food for Use in Larviculture. Urmia: Artemia and Aquatic Animals Research Center, Urmia University, Iran. pp 1-60.

Asche, F., Guttormsen, A. G. and Tveteras, R. (1999). Environmental problems, productivity and innovations in Norwegian salmon aquaculture. Aquaculture Economics and Management 3(1): 19-29.

Asche, F., Hansen, H., Tveteras, R. and Tveteras, S. (2009). The salmon disease crisis in Chile. Marine Resource Economics 24 (4): 405-411.

Avnimelech, Y. (2009). Biofloc Technology: A Practical Guide Book, The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States. pp 1-182.

Baeza-Rojano, E., Domingues, P., Guerra-García, J.M., Capella, S., Norena-Barroso, E., Caamal-Monsreal, C. and Rosas, C. (2013). Marine gammarids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): a new live prey to culture octopus maya hatchlings. Aquaculture Research 44(10): 1602-1612.

Crab, R., Defoirdt, T., Bossier, P. and Verstraete, W. (2012). Biofloc technology in aquaculture: beneficial effects and future challenges. Aquaculture 356(2): 351-356.

David, A. B. (2003). Status of marine aquaculture in relation to live prey: past, present and future. In: Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture, G. S. Josianne and A. M. Lesley (eds.), Blackwell Publishing, U. K. pp 1-16.

Dhert, P., Rombaut, G., Suantika, G. and Sorgeloos. P. (2001). Advancement of rotifer culture and manipulation techniques in Europe. Aquaculture 200(1): 129-146.

FAO. (2014). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 233 p.

FAO. (2019). Globefish Highlights April 2019 Issue, with Jan. - Dec. 2018 Statistics - A Quarterly Update on World Seafood Markets. Globefish Highlights no. 2-2019, FAO, Rome, Italy. 65 p.

Mahjoub, M. S., Schmoker, C. and Drillet, G. (2013). Live feeds in larval fish rearing: production, use, and future. In: Larval Fish Aquaculture, J. G. Qin (ed.), Nova Science Publishers, Australia. pp 32-51.

Manickam, N., Bhavan, P. S. and Santhanam, P. (2017). Evaluation of nutritional profiles of wild mixed zooplankton in Sulur and Ukkadam Lakes of Coimbatore, South India. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17(3): 509-517.

Nakajima, K. and Takeuchi, I. (2008). Rearing method for Caprella mutica (Malacostraca: Amphipoda) in an exhibition tank in the port of Nagoya public aquarium, with notes on reproductive biology. Journal of Crustacean Biology 28(1): 171-174.

Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H. and Troell, M. (2000). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405(6790): 1097-1024.

Oglend, A. (2013). Recent trends in salmon price volatility. Aquaculture Economics and Management 17(3): 281-299.

Perumal, P., Balajiprasath, B., Santhanam, P., Shenbaga Devi, A., Dineshkumar, S. and Jeyanthi, S. (2015). Isolation and intensive culture of marine microalgae. In: Advances in Marine and Brackish Water Aquaculture, P. Santhanam, A.R. Thirunavukkarasu and P. Perumal (eds.), Springer India. pp 1-15.

Romano, N. and Kumar, V. (2017). Vegetarian shrimp: pellet-free shrimp farming. World Aquaculture (12): 36-39.

Santhanam, P., Ananth, S., Nandakumar, R., Jayalakshmi, T., Kaviyarasan, M. and Perumal, P. (2015). Intensive indoor and outdoor pilot scale culture of marine copepods. In: Advances in Marine and Brackish Water Aquaculture, P. Santhanam, A.R. Thirunavukkarasu and P. Perumal (eds.), Springer India. pp 305-314.

Santhanam, P., Ananth, S., Dinesh Kumar, S. and Perumal, P. (2019). Biofloc-copefloc: a novel technology for sustainable shrimp farming. In: Basic and Applied Zooplankton Biology, P. Santhanam. A. Begum and P. Perumal (eds.), Springer Nature Singapore Pvt. Ltd., Singapore. pp 139-195.

Smil, V. (2011). Nitrogen cycle and world food production. World Agriculture 2 (1): 9-13.

Thong, P. Y. (2014). Biofloc technology in shrimp farming: success and failure. Aquaculture Asia Pacific 10(4): 13-16.

Tiwari, V. K. (1986). Live Feed Culture, Silver Jubilee Celebrations, Hitech Aquaculture, Open House, pp 1-15.

Zokaeifar, H., Balcazar, J. L., Saad, C. R., Kamarudin, M. S., Sijam, K., Arshad, A. and Nejat, N. (2012). Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune gene expression and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 33(4): 683-689.

Downloads

Submitted

2020-01-21

Published

2020-12-04

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

SANTHANAM, P., MANICKAM, N., & PERUMAL, P. (2020). Biofloc-copefloc: A Novel Technology towards Sustained Aquaculture. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 38(2), 43-50. https://epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/JISCAR/article/view/97279