Complete feed for livestock concept, present status and future trend: A review
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Keywords:Buffalo, Cattle, Complete ration, DM, Digestibility, Milk production, Meat production, NDF, Reproduction, Total mixed ration
AbstractThe complete feed or total mixed ration is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients to provide the specific nutrients requirement. In this system the animal have continuous free choice availability of a uniform feed mixture resulting in more uniform load on the rumen. This product is fed as a sole source of nutrients except water. A more even intake of feed into rumen is also associated with less fluctuation in the release of ammonia, so that non-protein nitrogen may be more efficiently utilized. The density of energy increases in the ration so there is a linear increase in feed intake, milk yield, milk protein and lactose yield. Particles size in processing of complete feed diets affects the milk fat level. Diets with smaller forage particle size increase the fractional turnover rate of ruminal DM and DMI and spend lesser time in the rumen for microbial digestion, thereby decreasing digestibility , particularly fibre digestion. Since organized dairy farms are coming up in our country so complete feed concept of feeding animals is becoming increasingly popular.
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